Первое энциклопедическое издание по психологии мотивации на русском языке (рец. на книгу: Хекхаузен X. Мотивация и деятельность: В 2 т. М.: Педагогика, 1986)
The material published here is a report on the Thirty-Second Gubernatorial Readings held in Tyumen, April 25th, 2018, under the framework of the joint project conducted by the journal Politeia and the administration of the Tyumen region. The topic of the Readings is the transformations of Russia’s human capital. V.E.Gimpelson, Director of the Center for Labor Market Studies at the National Research University Higher School of Economics, in his speech provided a definition of human capital and discussed in details a number of questions related to its current state and future development in Russia (supply and demand of human capital in the Russian Federation, the quality of Russia’s human capital and prospects for its growth, resources for investment in human capital etc.). M.A.Giltman, Professor of the Tyumen State University, in his presentation analyzed formation of the human capital in the Tyumen region, primarily in the sphere of education. A.M.Gretsova, HR Director of the West-Siberian Bank of PJSC Sberbank of Russia, and E.A.Rudyk, Head of the Personnel Evaluation and Development Department of RN-Uvatneftegaz, shared their experience in accumulating human capital within their corporations, focusing on the institution of mentoring. M.M.Skvortsov, Director General of JSC “TALK”, winner of the contest “Leaders of Russia”, devoted his speech to the role of the projects of the forum “Russia — Land of Opportunities” in shaping demand and supply of human capital. V.V.Yakushev, Governor of the Tyumen region, summed up the discussion by drawing attention to the complex nature of the formation of human capital and the important roles that the state, business and family can and should play in this process.
The article considers the restructuring process within situations of higher education in the USA and EU. The following factors of the university management motivation were distinguished: ranking system, business funding, the move of budget institutions to the market conditions of functioning, and the autonomy of universities. The possibility of implementing these points with the aim to increase the effectiveness of education system and to get more support from the entrepreneurs was analyzed. The article shows the existing management system negative influences the performance of specialists. With that, the ranking system positively influences the motivation of university administration. This is evidenced by the following positive tendency: according to QS world ranking system, the Russian universities are among the top 1000 universities of the world. Correlation analysis showed negative correlation between the leading universities and GDP of Russia (r=-0.93). The analysis of the leading countries experience pointed to the necessity of business funding of higher education. This will allow universities to independently develop under the current market conditions. At the same time, the university administration must orient to the revenues from scientific innovations and strive to benefit from the potential opportunities of its faculty. In its turn, it will enhance the motivation of university administration to create an effective education system.
The monograph is devoted to research of motivating innovation activities. This topic is especially relevant nowadays when there is a tendency towards activation of companies' innovation activities, increase in expenses on technological innovations and growth of innovative companies in Russia. Not all Russian innovative companies realize the necessity of improving employee management system, which requires determination of employee motivation towards innovation activities and development of an incentive system. For coping with the outlined problem, the authors discuss the existing employee stimulation types, used by Russian companies in the innovation environment. In addition, implication of different types of employee stimulation are considered for increasing innovation activities. The authors have developed a methodological approach to study motivation of innovation activities in Russian companies. This approach is based on Herzberg's theory, certain provisions of Russian and foreign approaches regarding remuneration, especially, the experience of Japanese companies aimed at stimulation of employee innovative behavior. The research results are based not only on the analysis of Russian and foreign literature, but also on the results of the empirical study. The main point of this monograph is that the obtained results led to a number of practical recommendations for top-managers and heads of human resource management departments of Russian innovation companies. The monograph contains guidelines for top-managers, including recommendations on career, social, and material incentives. The proposed ideas are not restricted only to employee stimulation and incentive types. The authors have also summarized the recommendations for top-managers and discussed them in details.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.