Индийская модель демократии: между Западом и Востоком
There is a wide discussion in literature about the crisis of the liberal world order and the rollback of the “third wave” of democratization proposed by S. Huntington. The Indian democracy seems to be at the nexus of Western and Eastern political system. On the one hand, India has a successfully functioning parliamentary democracy built on the principles of the Westminster system, which has demonstrated its sustainability even during periods of political crises. On the other hand, the Indian socio-political structure includes some elements that noticeably distinguish it from Western states: a caste system, complex interethnic relations and sectarian divisions, occasionally resultant in communal violence. Critics of Indian democracy often note a departure from liberal practices, particularly in terms of respect for individual liberties, and the emergence of authoritarian tendencies in state policies.
In the first part of the work, the authors review the political system of India and the functioning of the various branches of government. The second part examines the main theoretical concepts to understanding non-Western models of democracy. The authors analyze approaches of R. Dahl, L. Pye, A. Lijphart and assess their applicability to the Indian model of democracy.
It may be argued that the Indian model is best explained by the theory of consociational democracy, which takes into account the multi-ethnic and multiconfessional composition of Indian society. The inequalities and deep cultural divisions inherent in the Indian social order make the implementation of democracy a necessary condition for building loyalty of the population and strengthening statehood.