The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons (Wen Xin Diao Long) by Liu Xie (465/466– 520/522) overcomes other similar treaties of that time by its size (about 40 thousand characters), by the complexity of the structure, and as well by the depth of working out the issues of literary theory and practice. That’s why the Liu Xie’s literary concept is usually considered as a kind of quintessence of Chinese literary mind of the early Middle Ages. This article is an attempt to challenge this thesis and demonstrate that Liu Xie was far ahead of his time. Analyzing the Liu Xie’s genre concept, the author focuses on two major points. The first is the connection of the genre with categories of a higher or general order, with the notions of traditional Chinese literary types or modes of wen and bi and with the form of artistic speech. The second is the hierarchy of genres specified by the order of their description in the treatise. The author rebuts the idea that Liu Xie divided the literature into wen and bi on the basis of rhyme only. She argues that he considered the сontent of a literary work to be more important than its form for defining its genre.
The Republic of Kazakhstan became one of the first members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) that was formed on January 1, 2015. As a full member this country had to change its legislation in accordance with the EAEU legal acts. This article is devoted to non-tariff measures (NTMs) applied by the Republic of Kazakhstan in the context of the Eurasian economic integration. The importance of NTM research is defined by the fact that excessive regulatory policies may result in decreased growth rates of economy and overall loss of welfare. UNCTAD’s database (TRAINS/WITS database) was used in order to analyze national NTMs. In total 239 national actively applied NTMs were analyzed and systematized. Most of them are either import-related technical measures (Technical barriers to trade - TBT, Sanitary and phytosanitary measures - SPS measures) or export-related technical measures. Together they account for approximately 94.8% of applied national NTMs. In addition to the analysis of NTMs in terms of their type and type of affected product, author revealed the correspondence of Kazakhstan’s national NTMs to basic principles of the World Trade Organization (WTO): most-favored nation (MFN) and national treatment clause. Thus our research determined measures that represent a violation of MFN principle or national treatment clause. So these NTMs may be barriers to trade of the Republic of Kazakhstan with the other countries. Further research of ad valorem equivalents (AVE) of the measures is required in order to determine the economic effects of the non-tariff measures applied by the Republic of Kazakhstan.
“Vibrant Party or an Empty Shell? Some Comparisons between Former Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Today’s CCP” // “Vostok-Oriens” (JRAS), 2006 № 6
The article deals with a metaphor as a lexical means of the conceptual emotive category realization in speech, which is one of relevant problems profoundly and thoroughly studied in modern linguistics. The research shows the peculiarity of emotive category reflection in the Arabic Linguistic Tradition, the views of Arab philologists on a metaphor as a performer of the expressive and semantic function in speech, and it also shows the characteristic properties of the representation of emotions with the aid of this trope in Modern Spoken and Written Arabic in different functional styles of speech.
: This paper focuses on transformations of gender attitudes in a set of Arab societies covered by the Arab Barometer. We analyze age and cohort differences in thirteen countries using generalized additive modeling (GAM). We argue that stagnation or even retrogression of gender attitudes revealed by our analysis in some societies may be caused partly by an ideological shift of the 1970sand 1980s, from largely secular and socialist-oriented national movements of the 1950s and 1960s to the more conservative period often associated with the rise of political Islam. On the other hand, the youngest cohorts in those societies that have long promoted conservative gender attitudes are getting somewhat more liberal, although they remain slightly less gender egalitarian compared to other societies.
We test our assumptions using the example of Yemen. The current territory of that country used to exist in 2 separate states between 1967 and 1990: the South supported by the Soviet Union and the North influenced by Saudi Arabia and the Western bloc. We trace the support for gender egalitarianism across generations in the two parts of Yemen and show that the secular socialist ideology made a profound imprint on the attitudes of a whole generation and made those who were in their twenties back in the 1960s more egalitarian than the young people these days. The same is true, to varying extent, for the other countries of the region that had some socialist experience.
The Tomb of Petosiris at Tuna el-Gebel and its ‘World of Doubles’: An Interpretation of the Monument in the Light of the Egyptian Elite’s Mood of the Early Hellenistic Time.
The article shows that the traditional scenes of defunct’s confronting deities in the chapel of the tomb of the priest Petosiris at Tuna el-Gebel near Hermopolis (late 4th century B.C.) are connected exclusively with the posthumous destiny of Petosiris’ relatives that died before him; the decoration of the pronaos that was dedicated to himself was marked with considerable Hellenization and reproduced the archaic model of the “World of Doubles” typical for private tombs of the Third Millennium B.C. Probably Petosiris urged to achieve the posthumous existence according to this model, independently of gods, as he thought it impossible to contact gods effectively in the early Macedonian time, when, in his ideas, there was no ritual sacral ruler in Egypt.
The case of a Sufi shrine of the Dagestani origin in Turkey examined in the article relates to the history of shared transnational Sufi networks. The naqshbandiyya-halidiya brotherhood of the Ottoman origin once moved from the Middle East to Russia’s borderlands in the Eastern Caucasus and then came back to the Ottoman Empire from the North Caucasus. Dagestani Sufi networks and holy places represent a specific kind of interactions between the Muslim elites in the Middle East, the North Caucasus, the Volga-Ural region, and Anatolia from the late nineteenth century up today. The biographies of Muhammad and Sharaf ad-Din from Kikuni buried in Turkey are well documented in various written sources, epigraphs, and oral histories. They participated in the 1877 Uprising, were exiled in the Volga region, and then immigrated to the Ottoman Empire. Their biographies show that the Naqshbandiya-Khalidiyya often crossed political boundaries and ideological barriers established in the region during the demarcation of the possessions of the Ottoman Turkey and the Russian Empire. The exchange of territories and subjects between Turkey and Russia over the past one and a half centuries led to the emergence of hybrid identities. The article traces a micro-history of an identity in a muhajir (immigrant) village community in Western Anatolia. Contrary to popular belief, the Sufi brotherhood never represented a single elusive player in the “Big Game” between the Great Powers. Rather, it included numerous rival factions whose leaders formed complex relations with each other and with local political elites. Sufi ritual networks were and still are closely connected to more local networks of sacred sites (ziyarats) in the regions.
The fiftieth anniversary is approaching of the year which has entered the world history as "The Year of Аfrica". In 1960 seventeen new Аfrican states appeared on the map of the world. In connection with this anniversary the summing up of the results is beginning in Аfrica and the whole world: what has this half-century road been like? What difficulties, achievements, mistakes have been on this road? It is necessary also to track the road of science in the field of Аfrican studies, to estimate to what degree its predictions have come true, what achievements, difficulties, mistakes it has had. In his article the author unifies the analysis of scientific achievements with what he saw himself when he was a student and a post-graduate student from the end of the 1940-s to the middle of the 1950-s, and he stresses what is important in this country's Аfrican studies and what is not clear enough to people who came to science at a later time.
The essay is devoted to the visit of two Soviet historians, Apollon Davidson and Irina Filatova, to South Africa in December 1989, long before diplomatic relations were established between our two countries. The authors recall the exciting atmosphere of the time and the deep interest of their South African interlocutors to the Soviet Union.
The transformation of political thought in the national borderlands of the Russian Empire in the early twentieth century featured a variety of ideas, trends and projects. The imperial crisis which manifested itself at the turn of the century contributed to the discussions on future state formations. Although the autonomist discourse is usually located in the sphere of Soviet policy, regional intellectuals who synthesized local and global ideas worked out their political projects independently of the Soviet power. Comparing political activism of Siberian (Buryat-Mongol) and Central Asian (Alash or Kazakh) intellectuals, this article discusses the articulation of political unity in national terms which was caused by their struggle against discrimination, desire for greater representation within the existing power structures, as well as for protection of native languages, traditions and other forms of cultural expression.
Dong Qichang is one of the central figures in the history of calligraphy, painting and theory of art of the Ming Dynasty period (1368-1644). Dong Qichang's art gave rise to a separate movement known as Songjiang Pai that strongly influenced the visual arts of the XVII-XVIII centuries. Dong Qichang’s life was focused on two ambitious goals: taking the post of the empire’s high-ranking dignitary and becoming the first calligrapher and painter of his era. Dong Qichang's biography is unique in that he succeeded in achieving both goals, for he saw no contradictions between the two. Art critics consider Dong Qichang's art separately from his career path. The purpose of this study is to understand which aspects of traditional calligraphic aesthetics and Dong Qichang's own views allowed him throughout his life to successfully combine his work with the time-consuming career as an official. The study subject is Dong Qichang's album known as “Own Uncial Transcription of Imperial Decrees on Appointments to Public Positions” from the Shanghai Museum Collection. In his art, Dong Qichang aspired to the ideal of "naturalness of celestial reality" combined with the requirement for constant hand movement control that provided a healing effect of the creative process on the author's psychosomatic state. Dong Qichang regularly presented his works to influential people at court, cultivating the right connections for career purposes. Creativity allowed Dong Qichang to cope with temptations and risks of the high social status. Art elevated Dong Qichang over the harsh social realities, without disengaging him from them. The path of solitary seclusion was not something that appealed to Dong Qichang; instead, he was inspired by examples of socially active calligraphers and painters of the past. It is natural, therefore, that Dong Qichang's life and creative experience continue to be relevant for many artistically gifted businessmen and politicians of modern China.
From the Middle Ages till present days, the “Biography of Sultan Jalal al-Din Mankburny” by his secretary Muhammad an-Nasavi is considered to be one the most important Arab-Persian sources about the Mongol conquest of Central Asia and Iran. Eyewitness of the Mongol invasion, an-Nasavi provides a good deal of valuable information which are not found in other synchronous historical works. Despite the fact that this historical source has been introduced into scientific circulation for a long time and is well known to the researchers, there are still some questions about the information contained in it. This article is devoted to the question of double dating of the same events in the “Biography”, which has not been the object of special study. For the battle on the Turgay plain between the troops of Khorezmshah Ala ad-Din Muhammad and the Mongolian corps under the command of Juchi Khan, an-Nasavi cites two different dates: 616 and 612 AH, and the battle near Isfahan between Jalal al-Din’s troops and Mongols he dates as 624 and 625 AH. Nowadays, I propose a preliminary hypothesis on the origin of these contradictions. In the both cases, an-Nasavi wanted to correct the faults of his contemporary Ibn al-Athir whose work he cited in his own. In the first case, an-Nasavi may have confused two Mongolian campaigns about which he could have heard only rumors: against the Merkites (in 1215/16) and against Kuchlug Khan (in 1218). By contrast, the later Arab-Persian historians don’t confuse these campaigns, being familiar with Chinese and Mongolian sources. And in the second case, Ibn al-Athir erroneously cites two battles near Isfahan (in 1226/27 and in 1228). An-Nasavi, as he knew this event much better, wanted to correct this fault. But having corrected the date in the text, he may have forgotten to correct it in the chapter’s head where he had already copied the wrong date from Ibn al-Athir’s work.
The paper is an attempt of a new interpretation of the term saqaliba that Ahmad ibn Fadlan, who was a 10-century Arab traveler, used in his Kitab as a designation of the population of the Middle Volga region. The most likely is that saqaliba in this region in the beginning of 10th century was a demonym, ie designation of certain territory residents, regardless of their genealogy and characteristics of the material and spiritual culture.
Genesis of the demonym could be associated with Imenkovo archaeological culture of 4-7th centuries AD, which is similar to authentically Slavic cultures. From VIII this culture was replaced by Turkic and Finno-Ugric cultures.
Volga Bulgaria emerged in the late 9th – early 10th century as the union of different ethnopolitical groups led by the Bulgars. In the 920's Almış, the ruler of the Bulgars, followed by Ibn Fadlan designated by the term "Sakaliba" ethno-political group in aggregate subordinated to Almış.
In the process of consolidating power of Bulgar leaders demonym saqaliba was replaced by the term bulghar in the writings of Ibn Rustah, al-Mas‘udi, Estakhri etc.