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Regular version of the site
Of all publications in the section: 82
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Article
Stezhenskaya L. Oriens. 2019. No. 1. P. 93-121.

The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons (Wen Xin Diao Long) by Liu Xie (465/466– 520/522) overcomes other similar treaties of that time by its size (about 40 thousand characters), by the complexity of the structure, and as well by the depth of working out the issues of literary theory and practice. That’s why the Liu Xie’s literary concept is usually considered as a kind of quintessence of Chinese literary mind of the early Middle Ages. This article is an attempt to challenge this thesis and demonstrate that Liu Xie was far ahead of his time. Analyzing the Liu Xie’s genre concept, the author focuses on two major points. The first is the connection of the genre with categories of a higher or general order, with the notions of traditional Chinese literary types or modes of wen and bi and with the form of artistic speech. The second is the hierarchy of genres specified by the order of their description in the treatise. The author rebuts the idea that Liu Xie divided the literature into wen and bi on the basis of rhyme only. She argues that he considered the сontent of a literary work to be more important than its form for defining its genre.

Added: Nov 15, 2019
Article
Stezhenskaya L.V. Oriens. 2019. No. 1. P. 93-121.

 The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons (Wen Xin Diao Long) by Liu Xie (465/466– 520/522) overcomes other similar treaties of that time by its size (about 40 thousand characters), by the complexity of the structure, and as well by the depth of working out the issues of literary theory and practice. That’s why the Liu Xie’s literary concept is usually considered as a kind of quintessence of Chinese literary mind of the early Middle Ages. This article is an attempt to challenge this thesis and demonstrate that Liu Xie was far ahead of his time. Analyzing the Liu Xie’s genre concept, the author focuses on two major points. The first is the connection of the genre with categories of a higher or general order, with the notions of traditional Chinese literary types or modes of wen and bi and with the form of artistic speech. The second is the hierarchy of genres specified by the order of their description in the treatise. The author rebuts the idea that Liu Xie divided the literature into wen and bi on the basis of rhyme only. She argues that he considered the сontent of a literary work to be more important than its form for defining its genre.   

Added: Oct 28, 2018
Article
Костелянец С. В. Oriens. 2018. No. 6. P. 184-198.

The present paper focuses on the phenomenon of the growing military presence of foreign powers in Africa, which in effect is a precursor to the imminent new scramble for the political and economic influence on the continent, and on Russia's prospects for the use of hard power instruments on the African continent in light of this development. After the end of the Cold War, it seemed for some time that Africa would no longer remain a pawn on the global geopolitical chessboard but strive to pursue its own agenda. The advent of the African Union (AU) in 2001, the establishment of the African Standby Force in 2003, and the insistence of the AU on finding “African solutions to African problems” may have raised hopes for the minimization of foreign political and military influence on the continent. Yet since some years later, we have been witnessing rapid militarization by traditional and emerging external powers of Africa's strategic regions, first and foremost of the Horn of Africa, but others as well. Among the countries that have particularly raised their military profile on the continent in recent years are the United States, France, China, the United Arab Emirates and Turkey. The reasons for this phenomenon include not only the ongoing intensification of geopolitical competition on the global and regional scales, but also the inevitable increase in the importance of Africa's resource, human and economic potential within the emerging model of global development. Under the circumstances, with Russia once again laying a claim to be a weighty player on the world stage, it cannot but try to gain a foothold on the continent to augment its global influence, which invites research on the accompanying political, military and economic implications.

Added: Sep 28, 2019
Article
Sudakova Y. Oriens. 2019. No. 2. P. 187-201.

The Republic of Kazakhstan became one of the first members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) that was formed on January 1, 2015.  As a full member this country had to change its legislation in accordance with the EAEU legal acts. This article is devoted to non-tariff measures (NTMs) applied by the Republic of Kazakhstan in the context of the Eurasian economic integration. The importance of NTM research is defined by the fact that excessive regulatory policies may result in decreased growth rates of economy and overall loss of welfare. UNCTAD’s database (TRAINS/WITS database) was used in order to analyze national NTMs. In total 239 national actively applied NTMs were analyzed and systematized. Most of them are either import-related technical measures (Technical barriers to trade - TBT, Sanitary and phytosanitary measures - SPS measures) or export-related technical measures. Together they account for approximately 94.8% of applied national NTMs. In addition to the analysis of NTMs in terms of their type and type of affected product, author revealed the correspondence of Kazakhstan’s national NTMs to basic principles of the World Trade Organization (WTO): most-favored nation (MFN) and national treatment clause. Thus our research determined measures that represent a violation of MFN principle or national treatment clause. So these NTMs may be barriers to trade of the Republic of Kazakhstan with the other countries. Further research of ad valorem equivalents (AVE) of the measures is required in order to determine the economic effects of the non-tariff measures applied by the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Added: Feb 15, 2019
Article
Karpov M. Oriens. 2006. No. 6.

“Vibrant Party or an Empty Shell? Some Comparisons between Former Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Today’s CCP” // “Vostok-Oriens” (JRAS), 2006 № 6

Added: Sep 21, 2015
Article
Исаев Л. М. Восток. Афро-Азиатские общества: история и современность. 2013. № 3. С. 55-63.
Added: Jun 4, 2013
Article
Крылов А. Ю. Восток. Афро-Азиатские общества: история и современность. 2013. № 1. С. 97 -104.

The article deals with a metaphor as a lexical means of the conceptual emotive category realization in speech, which is one of relevant problems profoundly and thoroughly studied in modern linguistics. The research shows the peculiarity of emotive category reflection in the Arabic Linguistic Tradition, the views of Arab philologists on a metaphor as a performer of the expressive and semantic function in speech, and it also shows the characteristic properties of the representation of emotions with the aid of this trope in Modern Spoken and Written Arabic in different functional styles of speech.

Added: Mar 15, 2014
Article
Лукин А. В., Новиков Д. П. Восток. Афро-Азиатские общества: история и современность. 2019. № 6. С. 173-188.

This article analyzes the development potential of Greater Eurasia and its long-term institutionalization. The authors believe that Greater Eurasia, as a geopo-litical reality, is undergoing a certain transformation. Originally formed as a pole of confrontation under the pressure of American politics and based mainly on the Russian-Chinese strategic partnership, now it is acquiring more and more features of the international community, in which the development agenda prevails. This so far only emerging international community is involving more and more players, expanding its geographic coverage almost throughout the Eurasian continent, which poses new challenges for its participants: overcoming geo-political contradictions, forming a sustainable security architecture and linking potentials for achieving economic growth. The approaches and motives of the main Eurasian powers and the possibilities of their linking in order to build a geopolitically sustainable international community “from Lisbon to Singapore” are examined. This text develops and completes some of the theses presented by the authors in the article “From Greater Europe to Greater Eurasia: what brings the world a fundamental geopolitical shift”, which was published in the previous issue of the journal “Vostok (Oriens)”.

Added: Apr 24, 2020
Article
Коротаев А. В., Зинькина Ю. В. Восток. Афро-Азиатские общества: история и современность. 2017. Т. 4. С. 38-46.
Added: Nov 29, 2017
Article
Коротаев А. В., Зинькина Ю. В. Восток. Афро-Азиатские общества: история и современность. 2017. С. 40-48.
Added: Oct 12, 2017
Article
Костенко В. В., Понарин Э. Д., Стребкова О. Н. Восток. Афро-Азиатские общества: история и современность. 2019. № 2. С. 126-146.

: This paper focuses on transformations of gender attitudes in a set of Arab societies covered by the Arab Barometer. We analyze age and cohort differences in thirteen countries using generalized additive modeling (GAM). We argue that stagnation or even retrogression of gender attitudes revealed by our analysis in some societies may be caused partly by an ideological shift of the 1970sand 1980s, from largely secular and socialist-oriented national movements of the 1950s and 1960s to the more conservative period often associated with the rise of political Islam. On the other hand, the youngest cohorts in those societies that have long promoted conservative gender attitudes are getting somewhat more liberal, although they remain slightly less gender egalitarian compared to other societies.

We test our assumptions using the example of Yemen. The current territory of that country used to exist in 2 separate states between 1967 and 1990: the South supported by the Soviet Union and the North influenced by Saudi Arabia and the Western bloc. We trace the support for gender egalitarianism across generations in the two parts of Yemen and show that the secular socialist ideology made a profound imprint on the attitudes of a whole generation and made those who were in their twenties back in the 1960s more egalitarian than the young people these days. The same is true, to varying extent, for the other countries of the region that had some socialist experience.

Added: Apr 28, 2019
Article
Коротаев А. В. Восток. Афро-Азиатские общества: история и современность. 1995. № 3. С. 18-26.
Added: Mar 8, 2013
Article
Ладынин И. А. Восток. Афро-Азиатские общества: история и современность. 2015. № 5. С. 48-64.

The Tomb of Petosiris at Tuna el-Gebel and its ‘World of Doubles’: An Interpretation of the Monument in the Light of the Egyptian Elite’s Mood of the Early Hellenistic Time.

 

The article shows that the traditional scenes of defunct’s confronting deities in the chapel of the tomb of the priest Petosiris at Tuna el-Gebel near Hermopolis (late 4th century B.C.) are connected exclusively with the posthumous destiny of Petosiris’ relatives that died before him; the decoration of the pronaos that was dedicated to himself was marked with considerable Hellenization and reproduced the archaic model of the “World of Doubles” typical for private tombs of the Third Millennium B.C. Probably Petosiris urged to achieve the posthumous existence according to this model, independently of gods, as he thought it impossible to contact gods effectively in the early Macedonian time, when, in his ideas, there was no ritual sacral ruler in Egypt.

Added: Aug 25, 2018
Article
Бобровников В. О. Восток. Афро-Азиатские общества: история и современность. 2018. № 5. С. 21-36.

The case of a Sufi shrine of the Dagestani origin in Turkey examined in the article relates to the history of shared transnational Sufi networks. The naqshbandiyya-halidiya brotherhood of the Ottoman origin once moved from the Middle East to Russia’s borderlands in the Eastern Caucasus and then came back to the Ottoman Empire from the North Caucasus. Dagestani Sufi networks and holy places represent a specific kind of interactions between the Muslim elites in the Middle East, the North Caucasus, the Volga-Ural region, and Anatolia from the late nineteenth century up today. The biographies of Muhammad and Sharaf ad-Din from Kikuni buried in Turkey are well documented in various written sources, epigraphs, and oral histories. They participated in the 1877 Uprising, were exiled in the Volga region, and then immigrated to the Ottoman Empire. Their biographies show that the Naqshbandiya-Khalidiyya often crossed political boundaries and ideological barriers established in the region during the demarcation of the possessions of the Ottoman Turkey and the Russian Empire. The exchange of territories and subjects between Turkey and Russia over the past one and a half centuries led to the emergence of hybrid identities. The article traces a micro-history of an identity in a muhajir (immigrant) village community in Western Anatolia. Contrary to popular belief, the Sufi brotherhood never represented a single elusive player in the “Big Game” between the Great Powers. Rather, it included numerous rival factions whose leaders formed complex relations with each other and with local political elites. Sufi ritual networks were and still are closely connected to more local networks of sacred sites (ziyarats) in the regions.

Added: Mar 5, 2019
Article
Давидсон А. Б. Восток. Афро-Азиатские общества: история и современность. 2009. № 1. С. 5-13.

The fiftieth anniversary is approaching of the year which has entered the world history as "The Year of Аfrica". In 1960 seventeen new Аfrican states appeared on the map of the world. In connection with this anniversary the summing up of the results is beginning in Аfrica and the whole world: what has this half-century road been like? What difficulties, achievements, mistakes have been on this road? It is necessary also to track the road of science in the field of Аfrican studies, to estimate to what degree its predictions have come true, what achievements, difficulties, mistakes it has had. In his article the author unifies the analysis of scientific achievements with what he saw himself when he was a student and a post-graduate student from the end of the 1940-s to the middle of the 1950-s, and he stresses what is important in this country's Аfrican studies and what is not clear enough to people who came to science at a later time.

Added: Apr 15, 2013
Article
Давидсон А. Б., Филатова И. И. Восток. Афро-Азиатские общества: история и современность. 2014. № 5. С. 125-134.

The essay is devoted to the visit of two Soviet historians, Apollon Davidson and Irina Filatova, to South Africa in December 1989, long before diplomatic relations were established between our two countries. The authors recall the exciting atmosphere of the time and the deep interest of their South African interlocutors to the Soviet Union.

Added: Dec 18, 2014
Article
Саблин И. В., Коробейников А. С. Восток. Афро-Азиатские общества: история и современность. 2017. № 2. С. 49-61.

The transformation of political thought in the national borderlands of the Russian Empire in the early twentieth century featured a variety of ideas, trends and projects. The imperial crisis which manifested itself at the turn of the century contributed to the discussions on future state formations. Although the autonomist discourse is usually located in the sphere of Soviet policy, regional intellectuals who synthesized local and global ideas worked out their political projects independently of the Soviet power. Comparing political activism of Siberian (Buryat-Mongol) and Central Asian (Alash or Kazakh) intellectuals, this article discusses the articulation of political unity in national terms which was caused by their struggle against discrimination, desire for greater representation within the existing power structures, as well as for protection of native languages, traditions and other forms of cultural expression.

Added: Dec 1, 2015
Article
Костелянец С. В., Денисова Т. С. Восток. Афро-Азиатские общества: история и современность. 2019. № 5. С. 114-125.

The main security problems on the African continent include intrastate conflicts between certain groups of population over access to natural resources, intercommunity clashes, the spread of Islamic and Christian terrorism, electoral conflicts and the continuing activity of pirates in the Gulfs of Aden and Guinea. As the European Union, China and the African countries represented by the African Union expand their influence on the processes taking place in the world, they also begin to make an increasing contribution to the establishment of a new multi-polar world and to the growth of the global economy. This trend is of particular importance in relation to Africa, which until recently was considered solely as a continent that permanently experiences developmental backwardness and political instability. So far, EU member states have been the main trade, economic and political partners of African countries, as well as contributors to UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. However, China’s accent to the status of a global power and its desire to strengthen its global influence prompts Beijing to become increasingly involved in solving security problems of the African continent. In addition, China’s cooperation with African countries, previously described as “decisive non-interference in the internal affairs of partner countries while safeguarding China’s economic interests”, is undergoing a gradual shift towards Beijing’s involvement in peacekeeping operations in Africa. While the agreements signed by the People's Republic of China with African countries remain predominantly economic, the growing dependence of China in the implementation of its trade and economic interests on the vicissitudes of African politics and, simultaneously, on the pressure of the world community encourages Beijing to increase its activity on a global scale and leads to a revision of Chinese approaches to cooperation with this or that particular region. The participation of European countries in peacekeeping missions under the auspices of the UN has significantly decreased since the mid-1990s. Against this background, the role of developing countries, including China, in ensuring security on the African continent has increased. The expansion of security cooperation in the EU-China-Africa format is largely a European initiative. Although the extent of trilateral cooperation is still limited, primarily due to a certain discrepancy in China and the EU's approach to events in Africa, it is nevertheless gradually being established as part of peacekeeping operations, as well as the fight against piracy and terrorism.

Added: Feb 10, 2020
Article
Белозерова В. Г. Восток. Афро-Азиатские общества: история и современность. 2019. № 3. С. 170-182.

Dong Qichang is one of the central figures in the history of calligraphy, painting and theory of art of the Ming Dynasty period (1368-1644). Dong Qichang's art gave rise to a separate movement known as Songjiang Pai that strongly influenced the visual arts of the XVII-XVIII centuries. Dong Qichang’s life was focused on two ambitious goals: taking the post of the empire’s high-ranking dignitary and becoming the first calligrapher and painter of his era. Dong Qichang's biography is unique in that he succeeded in achieving both goals, for he saw no contradictions between the two. Art critics consider Dong Qichang's art separately from his career path. The purpose of this study is to understand which aspects of traditional calligraphic aesthetics and Dong Qichang's own views allowed him throughout his life to successfully combine his work with the time-consuming career as an official. The study subject is Dong Qichang's album known as “Own Uncial Transcription of Imperial Decrees on Appointments to Public Positions” from the Shanghai Museum Collection. In his art, Dong Qichang aspired to the ideal of "naturalness of celestial reality" combined with the requirement for constant hand movement control that provided a healing effect of the creative process on the author's psychosomatic state. Dong Qichang regularly presented his works to influential people at court, cultivating the right connections for career purposes. Creativity allowed Dong Qichang to cope with temptations and risks of the high social status. Art elevated Dong Qichang over the harsh social realities, without disengaging him from them. The path of solitary seclusion was not something that appealed to Dong Qichang; instead, he was inspired by examples of socially active calligraphers and painters of the past. It is natural, therefore, that Dong Qichang's life and creative experience continue to be relevant for many artistically gifted businessmen and politicians of modern China.

Added: Jul 3, 2019
Article
Деминцева Е. Б. Восток. Афро-Азиатские общества: история и современность. 2011. № 1.
Added: Sep 30, 2013
Article
Коган Л. Е., Наумкин В. В. Восток. Афро-Азиатские общества: история и современность. 2016. Т. 6. С. 120-131.
Added: Oct 21, 2017