Социальный капитал как элемент инклюзивного образования в постсоветских странах: специфика социального капитала учеников с особыми образовательными потребностями и инвалидностью
In recent decades, studies examining social capital as an important component of inclusion of small social groups into public life have risen in popularity. Within the framework of this study, social capital is considered as an important resource for the social inclusion of school children with special educational needs and disabilities (hereinafter referred to as SEND).
The data source is the quantitative online survey of parents of school children in Armenia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Ukraine, held in 2020 – 2021. This paper presents the results of comparing social capital resources of typically developing school children and school children with SEND, as well as social capital of their parents. The comparative analysis was carried out on the basis of the original indicators of social capital and the indices of the structural and relational social capital built by the authors. The fact that the authors singled out different types of social capital is in line with the multidimensional nature of this concept. The results indicate significant differences between typically developing children and children with SEND in terms of their level of involvement in interpersonal relationships. A significant positive relationship between active participation in extracurricular activities and a higher level of involvement in social networks is observed only in the sample of typically developing school students. Despite the fact that the presence of SEND does not affect access to social networks, school children with SEND experience difficulties in mobilizing social network resources, which results in a lower level of relational social capital. At the same time, it is shown that parents of children with SEND have relatively higher structural social capital as compared to the ones of typically developing school children.