Дауншифтинг: стратификационные эффекты
The monograph contains the results of large-scale collective project on Integrated Studies of social mobility in modern Russia. Theoretical and empirical analysis are based on the proposed authors multidimensional social mobility concepts or concepts “Broad life changes” that take into account different dimensions of social and spatial movements. In the object of researchers interest included social strata that are at different poles of the social hierarchy and representing both "top" and and the "bottoms" of Russian society. Combined methodological approach and use of mix methods allows you to present the processes mobility as through the lens of representative population polls, and through these interviews. In addition to objective characteristics of social mobility considered more complex phenomena associated with subjective mobility, such as habitus, motivational repertoire of mobility, social and cultural capital. Monograph supplement and enrich the materials of external participants, including international, working in similar paradigms.
The article summarizes some of the preliminary theoretical findings of the research project Phenomena of Order in Mobile Communications carried out at the Center of Fundamental Sociology of the National Research University "Higher School of Economics." The author's main idea is that the concept of mobility in sociology is undergoing substantial changes. For many years sociologists were interested above all in vertical mobility as movement between social positions. Today there has arisen a new interest in movements in physical space. The lessening of political obstacles to travel, motorization, the emergence of electronic means of communication, the use of so-called mobile gadgets are all characteristic and familiar features of a new mobility which, however, has certain no less evident yet relatively rarely thematized consequences. The study of these consequences enables one to say that the new mobility has a paradoxical character: many things about it contradict the very concept of mobility and make it possible to take a fresh look at the present-day way of life.
Different approaches to defining the term «downshifting» are considered. Conception of downshifting as an actual social tendency is presented. Necessity of modern downshifters images presented in mass media is substantiated. Interviews with downshifters published in electronic mass media during 2008-2010 are analyzed in the empirical research. Three types of «successful downshifters» are identified: 1) experience seekers, who are not fixed on a single activity and are seeking new areas for self-realization; 2) those who successfully made their childhood hobby a profession; 3) seekers of calm, harmonic and natural life outside of big cities (developing countries – Thailand, Egypt, India and rural territories in Russia).
Downshifting phenomenon is regarded as a process of inner choice between two options of personal actualization: personalization and personification. Cultural and social background of such choice is described historically. Some aspects of psychological dynamics of choice are illustrated by examples of different downshifting strategies.
The evolution of scientific views of the problem of social mobility illustrates the complexity of analyzing mobility in a context of social change, but also shows the societal benefits of a meritocratic principle of social selection.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.