In his article the author considers one of the key phenomenon of the Russian intellectual culture – university as the condition of Russian elite entering the level of a European civilization, and moreover as the element, that contributed to Europeasation of the whole country. The tragedy of Russian education can clearly be seen in the fate of Russian universities. The autocracy tried to limit the freedom of science, and Bolsheviks simply exiled the Russian professorate from the country.
In the article the analysis of the situation which developed in Russia at the beginning of the XX century and attempts of the imperial power to prevent the approaching catastrophe which were connected with the realization of the idea of representation of the people is given. The attitude of the last Russian emperor to the idea of formation of representation of the people is shown.
The article concerns the problem of the Russian absolutist monarchy of the XVIII - the beginning of XX-th centuries in a comparative perspective. The social function of absolutism consisted in national integration, cultural unification and social transformation of traditional society by using of legal and coercive measures. The crucial problem is the changing role of the bureaucracy which could be the main protagonist of reforms or, just the opposite – its main opponent. From this point of view the author summarizes positive and negative aspects of absolutist reforms making outlook on the comparative experience of other absolutist empires of Europe and Asia.
Autobiografical texts, survived from the late Middle Ages, allowed to the author analysing several amusing cases of complex relations between German noblemen of different generations.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.