Peculiarities of Development of Mouse Male Germ Cells after Intra-Testicular Injection of Dipin
It has been shown that a single intratessticular injection of chemical mutagen dipin (experiment) or saline (control) into mise resulted in significant but reversible morphohistological damage of the spermatogenetic epithelium.
The response of the mouse male germ cells exposed to gold nanoparticles (~2.5 nm) was studied. Our investigation demonstrates that treatment with Au nanoparticles for four days does not impair the architecture of the spermatogenic epithelium. Cytogeneticevaluation using micronucleus assay showed that gold nanoparticles can affect the chromosomes of early primary spermatocytes.
The response of mouse male germ cells exposed to gold nanoparticles (~ 2.5 nm) was studied. Our investigation demostrates that treatment with Au nanoparticles for four days does not impair the architecture of the spermatogenic epithelium. Cytogenetic evaluation using micronucleus assay showed that gold nanoparticles can affect the chromosomes of early primary spermatocytes. However, gold nanoparnicles did not induce chromosome abnomalities in spermatogonial stem cells. Further, the cauda epididymal sperm was isolated on the 14th day after treatment and was incubated in SDS solution (Na sodium dodecyl) and then in a solution containing DTT (dithiothreitol) to induce nuclear chromatin decondensation. Observations showed that after four days of treatment of spermiogenic (postmeiotic) cells with gold nanoparticles the decondensation process had no differences from the control.
Logarithmic criterion for determining statistical significance the frequency of associations in the group
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.