Способы конструирования инопланетного: антропоморфизм и антропология
The article covers the methods of making extraterrestrial images. The image of an alien was formed in the XIX century which is proved by the evolution of Sci-Fi stories, references to the contacts with the forms of alien life in media and the first scientific projects of communication with extraterrestrial intelligence (Johann C.F. Gauss, Joseph J. von Littrow). The currency of address to the images of extraterrestrial was conditioned by the fact that in the 20th century the research of extraterrestrial forms of life became the separate fields of science (SETI, CETI, METI projects), those images formed the basis of new Sci-Fi genres, understanding of extraterrestrial intelligence created a new UFO mythology. The lack of experience with extraterrestrial forms of intelligence and life put a question about methods and principles of making alien images in culture. Methods and basic principles of making image of an extraterrestrial creature in the culture of the 20th – 21st centuries are the subject of this article. Supposing that the images translated by the films of science fiction reflect the ideas of society about extraterrestrial forms of life and intelligence fully enough, the author turns to the analyses of these films. Thanks to this analysis it has been found that, firstly, the image of the alien exists in tandem with the image of the human. Secondly, the versions of interaction between human and alien have been established as well as the roles and status of the human and the alien have been identified in each variant of the plot. Thirdly, the structure and elements of the alien's image in culture have been determined. Anthropomorphism and zoomorphism as the elements of the image structure have been specially mentioned by the author. In the final part of the article the author addresses to the idea of George Edgar Slusser about the anthropology of the alien in the frames of which the question of the ties between human and extraterrestrial (or human and alien) has been put. Such concept makes possible to define the reasons for actualizing alien images in the modern culture.