Динамика индивидуальных моральных суждений в контексте групповой дискуссии
The characteristics of the subject that mediate group influence and group functioning in situations of group moral decision making are considered. The sample includes 86 students aged 18–24. It is noted that during group discussions participants with higher levels of individual moral consciousness are likely to regress than to raise their level of individual moral consciousness. It is shown that in situations of individual opinion conflict members of group discussions exhibit bounded rationality, opportunistic tendency and passivity. Additionally, the manifestation of the above characteristics in situations of group moral decision making is meaningfully analyzed.
This paper focuses on the empirical study of one of the most pressing problems of moral psychology today , namely the study of the group as a subject of moral functioning. Tradition investigate the effects of group characteristics and gruppodinamicheskih processes are actively formed in moral psychology , both in our country and abroad. Our study links the type sociometric structure and the type of group moral solutions aimed at the integration of empirical approaches in moral psychology and social psychology. Objective: to study the phenomenology of the process of moral decision making group , the definition of the real impact of sociometric structure and dynamics of the individual level of moral consciousness in the process of group discussion. The sample consisted of 86 people, divided into 6 groups , ages 18 to 24, students studying psychology at the universities of Moscow. The main finding of the study supports the fact that sociometric structure has a decisive influence on the type of group moral decisions and allows overestimate the importance of the rational component of moral functioning moral psychology.
One of the trends in modern moral psychology, ethics and morality is the study of the determining factors and psychological phenomena that are directly related to the level of emotional and moral sphere of the individual. Building on the two independent theories – stadial theory of moral future developments and theories of self-identity – is it possible to start an empirical study of the relationship of the two psychological constructs: the type of personal orientation and level of moral consciousness. Early studies of exactly the type of personal orientation serve as a descriptive (external) factors of a more general psychological phenomenon – the self. The hypothesis that the level of moral consciousness is linked to the type of personal orientation was not confirmed in our study, despite the commonality of the two conceptual constructs. Explanation of the causes and possible interpretations of this phenomenon is the subject of our article.
This article focuses on methodological analysis and empirical study of moral climate of the group. In the established tradition, the phenomenon is examined very indirectly in the context of related psychological group formation and recently has begun to attract the interest of researchers both in our country and abroad. In our work, we on purpose in our work we restrict our research by the frames of cognitive approach, in order to more clearly understand its possibilities and limitations, with regard to this subject area. Results and conclusions of this study may be of interest to managers, psychologists, sociologists and a wide range of people interested in this matter.
This paper examines the practice of using the intuitivity test as an evaluation criterion of normative ethical theories. Mechanism of intuitive thinking and its differences from rational decision-making is described. It is shown, that due to the nature of intuitive thinking, the results of intuitivity test are often influenced by factors that contradict the conditions of the original problem, which calls into question the reliability of the results of such verification.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.