Выбор профессии: чему учились и где пригодились?
With annoying lateness ideologists of general higher education have carried out the analysis (V.E.Gimpelson. «A trade choice: in that studied and where were useful?») also have found out that only 60 % of owners of diplomas of high school work on highest level specialities, and in the field of biological and agricultural sciences — 20 %. Almost 30 % of engineers occupy workplaces.
Über den Einfluss der Experten auf die Sicherung des Eigentums im östlichen Europa.
Im vorliegenden Band werden die Geschichte juristischer, administrativer, technischer und künstlerischer Professionen in Deutschland, Ostmitteleuropa und Russland, Westeuropa und den USA vom 19. Jahrhundert bis heute verglichen. Der Titel »Professionen, Eigentum und Staat« zeigt an, was die hier versammelten Untersuchungen über Professionen in verschiedenen Ländern und Großregionen zusammenhält: Es geht um das Zusammenspiel dreier zentraler Dimensionen der Modernisierung, nämlich 1) der beruflichen und fachlichen Spezialisierung in der Welt des Wissens und der Ausdrucksformen (Professionalisierung), 2) der Durchsetzung der Eigentumsordnung in der Landwirtschaft, Industrie und Kultur (Propertisierung) und 3) der Etablierung des territorialen Nationalstaats als politisch, sozial, kulturell, wirtschaftlich und rechtlich begründete souveräne Organisation (Nationalisierung).
Es soll gezeigt werden, wie diese in der Forschung oft isoliert behandelten Prozesse in verschiedenen Kontexten und Konstellationen ineinandergreifen; wo und wann sie sich wechselseitig verstärken oder behindern; und welche Formen von Beruflichkeit und Profession daraus resultieren.
The article is devoted to a new type of educational programs that are formed at the intersection of higher and secondary education. Education as an institute is seen as an instrument of social stratification of society. The authors analyze the major developments of education as an institute, for instance differentiation between of academic and vocational educational programs and the creation of programs of production a “Homo habilis” — a skilled performer. Changes in the vocational education system are considered in the light of the introduction of the new educational standards FSES 2011 (Federal State Educational Standards).
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.