Когда и почему разошлись пути развития России и Западной Европы (подход с позиции институциональной экономической теории)
Institutional approach to the analysis of the development of Russian medieval civilization is impossible without recourse to the theory of "Asiatic mode of production." In terms of this approach, the Russian civilization is a "double periphery" - while the periphery of the Western way of development based on private property, and the Eastern way of development based on the power of ownership. Mobilization and communal environment of Russian civilization and the strong influence of the Oriental Institute have created the preconditions for the development of the dominant institutions of "Asiatic mode of production", but retains the possibility for the development of feudal institutions. Over the XIII-XVII centuries. was an active confrontation between the four models of the Russian state - Moscow, Lithuania, Novgorod and Cossack. The final victory of the Moscow model based on the dominance of the "Asian" institutions, has been subject to a number of both objective and subjective circumstances. Institutional competition of different patterns of development of Russian civilization continues to this day - for example, in the form of competitive models of develop-ment of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus.
The textbook chapter deals with the public system of rural agricultural communities. Description the Asian way of production; characteristics of the institute of supreme public ownership on land; definition of the special features of the economic self-awareness of Ancient and Medieval East peoples; analysis of the eastern despotism phenomenon in time aspect are given. Methodical and training materials are attached.
We analyze political economy of Russian Vertical-of-Power in federal-regional aspects. In the year 2008 in Russia new president (the formal head of Russian government) was elected, in the next elections to come in the 2012 most probably that Putin is going to return his formal presidential chair. In this paper we test if governor appointed by new president followed by extra federal money (extra payments from federal budget to regional budget). There are two hypotheses: if new governor appointed by new president leads to significant increase in payments from federal budget to regional budget or there were no changes in payments from federal budget to regional budget. The data analysis confirms the first hypothesis.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.