Оценка популяционной эффективности медицинских технологий
A model of monopolistic competition for a closed economy, consisting of the traditional sector and the industrial production sector, which includes multi-product companies, is built. The consumption sector consists of heterogeneous consumers with a two-level Cobb-Douglas utility function and a generalized CES utility function built into it. The generalized CES utility function, unlike the standard one, includes, besides the love of variety, also the love of product quality, which makes it possible to distinguish consumers with a different attitude to product quality. The industrial sector consists of firms producing a variety of differentiated products of different quality, oriented to a specific type of customer. In the work, the demand functions of heterogeneous consumers for goods of different quality are obtained, the state of short-term equilibrium is considered for the case when firms have market power in choosing the quality of products. Various strategies of firms with respect to the selection of the optimal combination “price-quality” of a product that provides them with the maximum profit were analyzed, and conditions were obtained for screening in conditions of incomplete information on the type of consumers.
We model how student choices to rush a fraternity, and fraternity admission choices, interact with signals firms receive about student productivities to determine labormarket outcomes. The fraternity and students value wages and fraternity socializing values. We provide sufficient conditions under which, in equilibrium, most members have intermediate abilities: weak students apply, but are rejected unless they have high socializing values, while most able students do not apply to avoid taint from association with weaker members. We show this equilibrium reconciles the ability distribution of fraternity members at the University of Illinois, and estimate the fraternity’s welfare impact on different students.
A monopolist can price-discriminate between two consumer groups with linear demands that can cross (violate the Spence-Mirrlees condition). We derive complete parametric taxonomy of the outcomes. Switching from simple uniform pricing to two-part tariff or package pricing «generally» decreases the monopolistic deadweight loss. Switching from two-part tariff to packages also «generally» decreases the loss. However, we specify a small parameters' region where both these conclusions fail. Additionally, we find parameters yielding discrimination benefits to «big» or to «small» consumers. Thereby, we show the demand-specific and pricing-scheme specific reasons for/against public restrictions on price discrimination.
In this paper author suggests a new hybrid decision support system for operation with a class of semistructured tasks with underdetermined variables. Author defined the general tasks of prediction and estimation for a class of semistructured tasks. Use of interval neural networks and genetic algorithms for such tasks is justified. Author developed the algorithm to train interval neural networks. The diagram of the offered decision support system is described. Use of technologies for parallel computation on GPU kernels is justified. Author developed an effective algorithm of the developed algorithms parallel computation. Two examples of use of the developed system are given: prediction of the sea ice area in the Northern hemisphere and prediction of client solvency for credit institutions.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.