Оценка популяционной эффективности медицинских технологий
We model how student choices to rush a fraternity, and fraternity admission choices, interact with signals firms receive about student productivities to determine labormarket outcomes. The fraternity and students value wages and fraternity socializing values. We provide sufficient conditions under which, in equilibrium, most members have intermediate abilities: weak students apply, but are rejected unless they have high socializing values, while most able students do not apply to avoid taint from association with weaker members. We show this equilibrium reconciles the ability distribution of fraternity members at the University of Illinois, and estimate the fraternity’s welfare impact on different students.
A monopolist can price-discriminate between two consumer groups with linear demands that can cross (violate the Spence-Mirrlees condition). We derive complete parametric taxonomy of the outcomes. Switching from simple uniform pricing to two-part tariff or package pricing «generally» decreases the monopolistic deadweight loss. Switching from two-part tariff to packages also «generally» decreases the loss. However, we specify a small parameters' region where both these conclusions fail. Additionally, we find parameters yielding discrimination benefits to «big» or to «small» consumers. Thereby, we show the demand-specific and pricing-scheme specific reasons for/against public restrictions on price discrimination.
In this paper author suggests a new hybrid decision support system for operation with a class of semistructured tasks with underdetermined variables. Author defined the general tasks of prediction and estimation for a class of semistructured tasks. Use of interval neural networks and genetic algorithms for such tasks is justified. Author developed the algorithm to train interval neural networks. The diagram of the offered decision support system is described. Use of technologies for parallel computation on GPU kernels is justified. Author developed an effective algorithm of the developed algorithms parallel computation. Two examples of use of the developed system are given: prediction of the sea ice area in the Northern hemisphere and prediction of client solvency for credit institutions.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.