Matters related to organizing and adopting enumeration methods for population censuses are known to instigate a heated public debate all over the world including in Russia. Some call for modernizing census operations or even abandoning them altogether in favour of other means of obtaining data from statistical units. Reasoning behind proposals for changing fundamental approaches to statistical observation lies in excessively high costs of traditional population censuses and multiple refusal to participate it them from large groups of population. Development of various administrative registers of data and regular country-wide surveys lay the groundwork for revising approaches to conducting general censuses. Voprosy statistiki, 4/2017 The example of Germany is interesting, firstly, because in this country operate solely local population registers and there is no centralized population register. Secondly, there are no personal identification numbers (PIN), which complicates integration of information from population registers and from other sources. This is the first research that traced stepwise organization of population census in such an ambiguous situation. German practice demonstrates that it is possible to conduct population census using population registers that do not contain personal identification numbers, but to do so it is necessary to create a register of addresses, buildings, and dwellings. The experience of Germany, as well as of other countries conducting mixed-mode population census, is important and beneficial for Russia especially in the light of the attempt to establish a population register. Analyzing administration of population and housing census in Germany the author arrived at a conclusion that regardless of all shortcomings and challenges censuses remain to be the only source of statistical information on population and households at a certain point in time, however in modern conditions approaches to conducting them both could and should be modified.
The article looks at key approaches to population health and disability analysis. It demonstrates the fruitfulness of the “modern” conception of disability understood as restrictions on daily life activities due to health problems, and proposes instruments for measuring public health and disabilities in Russia based on international experience using the census and census-based surveys. Specifically, it applies WHO and UN recommendations to the micro-census of 2015 to develop tools for getting more detailed and useful information on disability than is currently available.
The Kaliningrad region stands out for its history and geographical location. In the post-war period, the region was completely repopulated. People from many parts of Russia and other republics of the former USSR were recruited to develop the new territory. Although demographic processes and migration in the Kaliningrad region have been studied in detail, we believe that census and micro-census data can significantly advance the current knowledge of this unique region. This holds true for the data relating to the results of pre-survey migration. This approach differs markedly from traditional migration studies in Russia, which rely on migration flow data, in both data sources and migration criteria employed. Our study uses the place of birth data from the 1989, 2002, and 2010 censuses and the 1994 and 2015 microcensuses. We conclude that the proportions of residents born locally and in post-Soviet Asian countries have been increasing in recent decades. At the same time, the contribution of the natives of Belarus and Ukraine to the region's population is rapidly declining, largely due to the change of generations having a different migration history.