Инновационный метод анализа социально-культурной среды крупного города
In the article it is considered a multidimensional estimation method designed to evaluate projects in the cultural sphere of the city life. The method's dimensions are: city administration's resources, inhabitants' public opinion and informational means accessible to city's dwellers.
The article is about the content and the role of the outdoor pastimes in socialization of children and teenagers from different generations. The results of the content-analysis of the survey are presented, which was composed by the two specially developed questionnaires, filled in by 251 respondents of various ages. The main activities are considered that constitute children’s outdoor pastimes. Five main categories are identified: games (with rules, sport games, role plays etc.); exploration of environment (experiments, searches, gathering, construction etc.); risk (various risky episodes); communication with peers; culturally mediated activity (visits to museums, skating rings, etc.). The main constituents of each of five categories and their representation among answers of the adult and adolescent samples are described. The dynamics of the children’s outdoor pastime is characterized by the social tendencies of the XX and XXI centuries, such as the increase of social tension and uncertainty, urbanization, overpopulation, etc. The differences in the outdoor pastimes between generations are shown, which lie in the chronology of mastery of the outdoor space and the content of children’s outdoor pastimes. The role of the outdoor pastimes in socialization of children and teenagers is discussed. The areas of the main types of children’s outdoor activity are characterized, as well as the degree of awareness and control by parents over the children’s activities, versions of parental rules and restrictions on children’s moves and activities. The way how the idea of the world that is appealing and encourages knowledge changes into the idea of its dangerousness, is viewed. The perspectives of the further psychological research in this area are described.
The article is aimed to clarify the contradictory nature of the urban atmosphere phenomenon by defining its’ nuances and the genesis of its’ appearance in social sciences. Such approach will help to conceptualize the phenomenon and will lead to the creation of the future urban atmosphere model suitable for further operationalization.
The research is represented by the theoretical analysis of works interested in urban atmosphere phenomenon in the field of sociology, phenomenology, management, literature, cultural geography.
The work can be divided into two parts. The first part describes the differences between urban atmosphere nuances, namely ambiance and atmosphere, and define them. Then the second part provide us with the information about ambiance and atmosphere origin and the process of its’ development from ancient times to this day. In the end of the article the necessity of taking into account the urban atmosphere shades, when dealing with model creation, is argued.
According to the analysis the atmosphere is invisible but is characterized by magnetic properties making the urban space attractive for living bodies. The ambience is produced by the atmosphere, but have the more pronounced qualitative properties which characterize the urban space. The ambience influence on our lifetime by mediating the relations between living bodies.
The consideration of the urban atmosphere genesis in different research fields showed that the atmosphere has been studied mainly within natural science and literature as descriptive quantitative phenomenon aimed to define the space of existence for living bodies. Whereas the ambiance, full of qualitative and tangible characteristics, has been appeared later and has been borrowed by a number of research disciplines (such as sociology, psychology, economics, management) as possible to be analyzed and slightly applied in practice.
According to the analysis the author reaches the conclusion that the urban atmosphere is the highly constructed phenomenon consisting of either atmosphere, or ambience. The second one is the qualitative continuation of the first one and the characteristics of both shouldn’t be overlooked when conceptualizing the phenomenon. The analysis also showed that the functioning principles of physical atmosphere and ambiance can be applied in the model creation. It is connected with the absence of explanation of urban atmosphere and ambience functioning by social scientists. The application of these principles from physics will provide the full scheme of urban atmosphere components interrelation and interaction.
The paper is focused on a subjective approach to the urban environment quality as an indicator of the quality of life. We look at the convenience of the city for the citizens, its friendliness and suitability for their activities and life plans realization. Infrastructure problems and limitations on basic services accessibility are also considered with special attention to families with dependent children and the elderly. We investigate the relationship between urban environment perceptions and social and demographic characteristics of Moscow dwellers. The research is based on a survey data.
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.