Benefit assessment of pharmaceutical products - A critical appraisal of applied methods
This paper contains the research of neuroeconomics results such as formulation and analysis of Ultimatum game (see Alan G. Sanfey, 2003) and neuromarketing (see Patrick Renvoisé, 2005). As a result the rational behavior of consumer during the decision-making of consume object prejudiced. In particular the axiom of reflexiveness of the rational utility theory was disproved. That axiom maintains that the fixed set of goods is not worse that itself. A conclusion that consumer choice based on the utility criterion depends not only on the set of goods but on the consume environment was made. The hypothesis of irrational behavior allowed to formalize floating utility criterion and correlation between the basket of products utility and consume environment during the consumer decision-making. Based on floating utility criterion the problem of optimal consumer’s budget distribution in conditions of integral utility maximization on limited time interval and consideration of the predicted environment factors value posed. Then the problem of intertemporal consumer choise for floating criterion was posed. The solution analysis of that problems had allowed to draw a conclusion of a significant influence of the predicted environment factors value exactness on an optimal solution and a dependence of that exactness on a consumer satisfaction.
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The paper is devoted to a new formal approach to logistics service development optimization in the wholesale business. Logistics service development is required to choose strategic direction of customer service in logistics, to identify key performance indicators of its implementation, and ultimately to make a choice of logistics services package. To solve these problems taking into account the preferences of decision-maker, it is suggested to use the analytic hierarchy process (AHP).
It is a first time that AHP has been employed several times within an optimization model: the approach worked-out consists of two stages. The first stage determines an optimal set of key performance indicators to control the strategic direction of logistics under consideration. The second stage identifies an optimal logistics services package taking into account its impact on the key indicators selected at the first stage.
The approach application is exemplified by a wholesaler that supplies foreign components to domestic manufacturers. Numerical solutions of AHP are shown in the article. The data for calculations are taken from statistical reports of the company at hand.
The paper suggests a new --- to the best of the author's knowledge --- characterization of Pareto-optimal decisions for the case of two-dimensional utility space which is not supposed to be convex. The main idea is to use the angle distances between the bisector of the first quadrant and points of utility space. A necessary and sufficient condition for Pareto optimality in the form of an equation is derived. The first-order necessary condition for optimality in the form of a pair of equations is also obtained.
The concept and aim of evidence-based entrepreneurship (EBE) is discussed as a strategy to overcome the divide between knowledge developed in the field of entrepreneurship and its use in practice. We argue that meta-analyses can and should be used in entrepreneurship research (and that it should also be used for qualitative work).
The paper uses meta-analysis to investigate the evolution of returns to education in Russia during the economic transition. We present the evidence of strong increase in returns to education in the 1990s. The returns to education peaked at 8% per additional year of schooling in the early 2000s. Since the mid-2000s the positive trend has been reversed. We find that the estimated returns are sensitive to sample design, specification and estimation methods. On average the estimated returns are higher if one uses imputed (instead of actual) years of education and estimates earnings equation with the OLS. Among covariates, the form of ownership and settlement type (urban/ rural) has the largest effect on the estimated returns to education. Regional variables have significant impact on the estimated returns only being included into the earnings equation at the oblast (province) level.
In this research, which is important for the applications of logistics and supply chain operation, task of choosing a vehicle is considered as the multicriteria optimization problem. On the example of a simplified model of the car choice it is shown that in solving this type of problems by the traditional methods of the multicriteria optimization theory, managers always need to consider the specifics descibed in the paper.