Проблема отношения личности к себе в психологии (от философско-психологических представлений к научной теории)
Based on the analysis of some actual philosophical and psychological issues in the field of personality’s psychological relations (the issue of the objective necessity of the subject of psychic activity, the source of that activity, and the character and the specificity of this source), the article discusses the methodological premises to the developing a conceptually different view on the self-relation phenomenon in psychology.
The key idea concerns a person’s self-relation as the subject of psychic activity. This suggests the person as the subject of relation to its Self where the Self describes that domain of human being in which the subject and the object of person’s self-referencing treatment exist in psychic life of human being as a totality of all its attributes: physical, mental and psychic, conscious and unconscious, public and private.
This edition, consisting of the book (Part 1 – "the Persistence stay with you") and CD (Part 2 – "Something that leads us into the depths of ourselves"), includes articles, translations and discussions on interdisciplinary research of the phenomenon of care of the Self and its understanding in various humanitarian sciences. The edition is intended for everyone interested in the problems of personal self-development, transformation, and formation of themselves as an individual, representative of society, culture and profession.
The methodological challenge is the question whether and with which qualifications something like the concept „Self“ may be attributed to ancient philosophers. The problem “What is man” was discovered by the Ancient Greek culture quite early. For example, at the epoch of Homer, the word autos means in the self-referent speech the body, soma – something that is different from other bodies (existing things) and constitutes one’s selfhood. Plato was the first philosopher who posed the question on the „same“, the true nature of man irrelative to his material substratum. Thus, we can see in Plato the nascency of the notion that the true nature of man conceived as a priori determined mode of being of the soul has transcendental roots. His soul theory can be consequently seen as the first draft of later theories of self-knowledge and the nature of human Self.
The article traces new theoretical approaches to the study of the history of subjectivity and the history of autobiography as two interdepended topics. Its introductory part sketches some basic characteristics of the traditional approach to these topics originated in the humanities of the second half of the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth centuries. The main part of the article introduces theoretical novelties that most strongly affected new scholarship of the field: emergence of the constructivist concept of the subject; development of the model of “autobiographical subject;” occurrence of new signifiers of the research subject; viewing both “the history of subjectivity” and “the history of autobiography” in inter- and transcultural perspectives; and interpretation of autobiographical texts as social practices.
The traditional approach is based on three main assumptions: 1) the history of the individual (personality, the self or subject) and the history of autobiography is inseparably, «naturally» linked to each other: transformations of the individual in time results in transformations of autobiographical forms it produces; 2) this development has progressive character: closer to our own time his self becomes more advanced and complex, as well as autobiographical testimonies it produces; 3) despite of its historical variability, the individual (personality, the self or subject) are essentially ontological substances.
The first update of this approach is mirrored in terminological changes. Instead of earlier common notions, researchers started using new ones that compete with traditional: egodocument, Selbstzeugnis, l’écrit du for privé, life-writing. The second update is directly connected to problematization of the subject in post-classical philosophy and, correspondingly, to reconceptualization of traditionally accepted relations between the subject and autobiography. It treats the earlier “self-evident” relations between the autobiographical narrative and the subject as a problem. The third is linked to the critics of Eurocentrism in the study of the history of subjectivity that started in 1980-s under the influence of anthropological and postcolonial studies. It proposes to approach autobiographical testimonies in the concrete historic and cultural contexts of their appearance, and their composition as special forms of human activity more or less common to all historical periods and cultures. The final update suggests paying a special attention to the social reality beyond the texts and argues that this reality not only shapes their meanings but their very appearance.
In the article on the material of a qualitative research of the problem of a person»s adequate self-relation the unity of the theory, experiment and counselling/therapeutic practice is implemented. A case study research was assigned to explore such a qualitative inquiry as the person»s self-relation. It enables researcher to draw attention in detail to the peculiarities of a single case design which uses first to learn about one»s self; and secondly, to highlight the ethical tensions imbued in the execution of professional helping and supporting practice, or a means of evaluating and reporting upon efficacy.
This article discusses current approaches to the study of morality as a predictor of individual behavior. Integration of personological and socio- psychological approaches opens new perspectives for considering the relationship between moral judgment and moral action. «Self» is considered as a «point of intersection». «Moral Self» is the center of attention in a number of personological as well as socio — psychological research directions. The total consideration of three factors — cognitive aspects of the morality (representations, values, judgments), the components of Self (moral self-esteem and the place of morality in the structure of Self) and situational infl uences (threat / support of the moral Self) — allows to predict individual behavior.
Psychotherapeutic practice calls for creating conceptions of autonomy, which can be utilized in work with clients. This article focuses on the psychotherapeutic approach called 'existential analysis and logotherapy' and makes explicit its ideas regarding autonomy. Specifically, the three key theoretical underpinnings of understanding and development of one's autonomy are described. It was shown that the existential-analytical practice is guided by the notions of 'person', dialogue/relatedness and phenomenology. The structural model of autonomy on the basis of existential analysis is discussed. It is argued that, although traditionally autonomy is strongly associated with the third fundamental motivation – the motivation to 'be oneself', this position is insufficient for practice. Thus, the central argument of the paper is that, from structural perspective, the useful way to address the issue of autonomy is to consider it as the interplay of the four fundamental existential motivations, described by A. Längle. Therefore, the process of maintaining of autonomy includes four different kinds of affirmation. The person says ‘yes’ to his or her subjective reality, own feelings, uniqueness and distinctiveness, and agentive presence in others and in the world. The paper also provides illustrations from psychotherapeutic practice to justify this standpoint.
The article examines ways of describing human experience and behavior from the first, the second and the third-person perspectives and their applicability for people with schizophrenia. It is quite difficult to describe the experience of such people from the third-person perspective, hence there is a great need in address to other methods and paying attention at prospects connected with them. Moreover, the article presents the changeability of conceptual framework depending on whose experience and behavior we investigate.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.