Гетерархия: организация диссонанса
The article deals with historical and sociological reconstruction and critical reappraisal of the negotiated order theory proposed by A. Strauss for the study of organizations. The paper analyzes the central concept of this perspective - negotiations, outlines key conceptual connections with symbolic interactionists research, considers the potentialities of negotiated order theory for explaining some organizational phenomena, examines the main limitations of this approach for studying organizations.
Despite the standpoint that postulates the presence of a tight boundary between the state and the church in the area of education and that currently dominates in the public space, there are projects that are being initiated and realized today and that let us question its consistency. The aim of the article is to discuss these impossible projects exploiting the friction at the overlap. This article draws on participant observation fi eldnotes, as well as 24 in-depth interviews with the staff, students, and graduates of a private Orthodox Christian University, conducted in 2011. In interpreting the research results, the author employs the principle of explaining the entrepreneurial exploitation of uncertainty, which was introduced by David Stark who expounded on the notion of heterarchy as an organizational form conducive to the productive untangling of complex situations.
The objective of this paper is to examine the internal and external factors of product and organizational innovations, and specifically to discuss the role of the business environment and administrative corruption as barriers of intra-firm innovations in transitional economies. The analysis was based on data from Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey of the EBRD and the World Bank conducted in 2009. Consistent correlations between product innovations and both high administrative obstacles and the growth of corruption costs were revealed. On the contrary, organizational innovations were largely not correlated with the respondents’ assessments of business climate.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.