Мобильность и солидарность. Статья вторая
Alexander F Filippov. Mobility and Solidarity. Part 2. This article continues «Mobility and solidarity. Part 1» (Sociological review. Vol. 10. № 3). Solidarity is considered first of all from the point of view of co-intended meaning, as an additional motive accompanying the main motivation of participants of interaction and, at exhaustion of the initial motive, replacing this motive. An example of such a motive in elementary interactions is fidelity. Fidelity, according to Georg Simmel, enables participants to make as kind of logical induction from the facts of the current behavior to the expected behavior of partners. Other type of communication concerning solidarity, is civil friendship, as described, in particular, by Aristotle. However any friendship presupposes too narrow and too specific circles of contacts, it can be only a prototype of modern solidarity. Religious ethics of fraternal affection and ethics of military brotherhood compete to friendship and often force it out. The more they are free from «world orders» (M. Weber), the more they come nearer to type of pure solidarity. The exchange of gifts can be considered as another type solidarity, however in modern societies it has only limited potential of universality. The most important phenomenon of modern mobile society is pure togetherness (Z. Bauman). Here solidarity is present as an imputed motive, one of the accepted vocabulary of motives, often invoked post hoc to explain why those who aren’t forced to it by power, money, or value commitments keep together
The summary paper argues that the phenomenon of male alliance (friendship) emerges as a consequence of mutual preference demonstrated by male individuals - both human and animal, - and such preference can be empirically captured. Friendly relations between men are built on two different foundations: (1) the principle of biological and social similarity and (2) the principle of psychological complementarity of the alliance members. Friendship is predominantly formed between boys and men of the same ethnic (racial) origin, similar age, behavior, and common social background. By contrast, psychologically friends are selected based on the complementarity of their temperament and main personality traits, such as ergonicity, sthenicity, emotionality, neophobia/neophilia, extraversion/introversion, dependence/independence of behavior, and dominance/submissiveness. These principles trigger the following key effects: a person is more likely to develop an individual preference and find a friend in childhood, and the number of potential friends is very limited.
In this papers editors of special issue introduce the topic and contributions of the issue.
The Russian civil law and practice have undergone major changes aimed at improving the legal normalization of relations and the modernization of private legal practice in the spirit of the disposition method of regulation.
The legal approach, according to which any rule that defines the rights and obligations of the parties to the contract should be interpreted by the court on the basis of its spirit and legislative regulation purposes, is conceptual for interpretation of the rules. It eliminates formalism in the law enforcement practice.
To illustrate the essence of this approach, the authors refer to the analysis of the provisions of Article 452 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation (the Civil Code), which allows to find out what kind of sense is put by the legislator in the requirement for pretrial settlement of the dispute on change (termination) of the contract, which turns out to be a mandatory step for bringing the case to court consideration.
On the basis of interpretation and study of the judicial practice, attention is drawn to the fact that the provisions of Article 452 of the Civil Code should not be understood purely formally and are designed solely for the court to unsure that attempts to pretrial resolution of a legal conflict were made and are exhausted.
This approach to interpretation of the provisions of Article 452 of the Civil Code is consistent with the objectives of legal regulation and does not create unnecessary obstacles to implementation of the rights of the bona fide participants of civil relations.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.