Неоинституциональный подход к анализу процессов адаптации трудовых мигрантов в российских сельских поселениях
This paper aims at answering one central question: why there is considerable demand for the labor of migrants in Russian rural communities in spite of widespread anti-migrant attitudes and the absence of significant differences between costs of migrant labor and local labor? It is argued that disintegration of Soviet state-farm-based and industry-based communities and spread of dacha estates in 1990s resulted in emergence of certain emigrant niches (forestry and construction industries, agriculture, and communal services) in the rural North-Western Russia by the beginning of 2000s. Network organization of migration (D. Massey), integration of migrant community into local rural community, and absence of secure labor opportunities outside migrant community create relationships of enforceable trust (A. Portes) which provide incentives for migrants to follow certain labor ethics and transform them into more disciplined occupants of non-prestigious job positions, than local under-class people. Mechanisms of immigrant niche formation (R. Waldinger) and negative labeling close certain segment of unskilled labor market for local population.