The paper outlines the basic principles of the sociology of emotions as a discipline based on the latest ideas and results in this field of knowledge. These principles emphasize the specifics of the sociology of emotions and include key theoretical lines of sociological research of emotions. The author originally developed some of the principles. The list of principles doesn't cover all of the possible foundations of the field, and the author intended rather to indicate the initial limits and possibilities of this discipline than to accomplish a synthesis of existing theoretical perspectives and concepts. Theoretical conceptualization is ongoing process on in the sociology of emotions, as well as seeking for new methods of empirical research of emotions. Sociologists study emotions in every possible social context, aiming not only to study the emotions themselves, but also consider the emotions as means of access to nature and the typical features of various social phenomena. Therefore, the general idea of the article may be summarized as follows: the sociology of emotions can provide the growth of knowledge about social phenomena through the consideration of socio-structural and cultural conditions of emotions, including situational factors, and by eliciting the social functions of emotions on the micro- and macro- levels of social structure. Refs 49.
The article considers the process of marking a professional identity by young physicians in the context of the perception of categories «disease» and «pain». The aim of the research is to analyze how the formation of professional identity is developing in young physicians in the context of different attitude to categories «disease» and «pain». Empirical basis of the research: biographical interviews with young physicians of medical specialties from St. Petersburg (n = 15). For young physicians of medical specialties, the distinctive feature of perception of categories «pain» is the dichotomy «professionalism – compassion», which is expressed in the fact that «pain», on the one hand, is considered exclusively from professional contexts, but on the other hand - the desire to help the patient is also present within professional practices of young physicians. Professional identity in the context of perception of the disease and pain is marked by young physicians based on various contexts of the attitude to this category. In the research we define the category «pain» as an increased and metaphysical category. In this study, we have identified three key categories of pain (attitude to pain) in young physicians. Also, the highlighted categories «pain» and «disease» (relations to them) among young physicians indicate that depending on how the perception of pain occurs, what the determinative attitude towards pain is, such will eventually be the professional identity of the young physician and its marking in daily life. In this case, unlike the traditional perception of pain by physicians, where this category is inscribed in the definition of fleshliness and attitude towards the fleshliness of the patient, the disease is a metaphysical category, as observed above, and the attitude towards this category is built on the basis of various factors and components. The results of this author's study was the identification of types of professional identity of young doctors and scenarios of pain perception.
This article analyses individual innovative behaviour of employees in domestic and foreign-owned companies operating in Russia. The authors focus on personal and organisational factors affecting the three stages of innovative processes at the micro-level: generating, proposing and implementing new ideas. Empirical analysis is based on the survey of 623 white-collar employees and managers in 17 private-owned organisations in Russia. In both domestic- and foreign-owned companies skilled workers and those having higher status in organisations — men; supervisors; having two or more higher education degrees; assessing their professional competencies as high — are characterized by higher innovative activity at the fist and second stage. At the third stage of the innovative process, employees of foreign-owned companies tend to report higher effectiveness of their innovative suggestions. The authors conclude that the organisational environment of foreign-owned companies is generally more conducive to innovative activities compared to Russian domestic companies. Better innovative performance of foreign-owned companies can be explained by their managerial incentives for employees’ innovative behaviour. In particular, direct incentives of individual innovative activity such as financial rewards or career promotions are more common in foreign-owned companies. Managers of these companies are less authoritarian and tend to use participative techniques of decision making. Employees of foreign-owned companies are more focused in their innovative activities and concentrated on a narrower range of issues than that of domestic Russian organisations. The authors underline the importance of fostering an innovative-friendly organisational environment that would provide formal and informal, tangible and intangible rewards for employee innovative behaviour. These rewards should create a synergy among personal and organisational antecedents of employee innovative activities. Selection and hiring of intrinsically motivated personnel, creation of an organisational climate that is favorable for the free flow of ideas and access to information, as well as direct incentives for innovative activities, are seen as crucially important.
The purpose of this paper is to examine manifestations, antecedents, and consequences of employees’ extra-role behaviour in Russian business organisations. The authors empirically identify four distinct types of extra-role behaviour: active prosocial, passive prosocial, oriented towards extra efforts at work, and challenge-oriented. The study is based on a sample of 112 employees from two organizations (manufacturing and IT). The analysis shows that organization-based management practices are stronger predictors of extra-role behaviors compared to respondents’ individual characteristics. The authors also found that the two types of extra-role behavior (‘passive prosocial’ and ‘oriented towards extra-efforts at work’), typically demonstrated by among by low-resource employees, seemingly result from poor management practices, and negatively influence on respondents’ job satisfaction and career promotions. In turn, high-resource employees tend to be engaged in active prosocial and change-oriented behaviors. These two types of extra-role behavior lead to higher work satisfaction and career success. The analysis enriches understanding of the nature of extra-role behavior in Russian organisations, its costs and benefits for organisations. It reveals the most effective types of extra-role behavior to be recommended for managerial implications.
This paper aims at answering one central question: why there is considerable demand for the labor of migrants in Russian rural communities in spite of widespread anti-migrant attitudes and the absence of significant differences between costs of migrant labor and local labor? It is argued that disintegration of Soviet state-farm-based and industry-based communities and spread of dacha estates in 1990s resulted in emergence of certain emigrant niches (forestry and construction industries, agriculture, and communal services) in the rural North-Western Russia by the beginning of 2000s. Network organization of migration (D. Massey), integration of migrant community into local rural community, and absence of secure labor opportunities outside migrant community create relationships of enforceable trust (A. Portes) which provide incentives for migrants to follow certain labor ethics and transform them into more disciplined occupants of non-prestigious job positions, than local under-class people. Mechanisms of immigrant niche formation (R. Waldinger) and negative labeling close certain segment of unskilled labor market for local population.
The article is devoted to certain growth factors of political influence of entrepreneurs on the system of political power in the transition societies. The paper presents the results research on the factors contributing to the active participation of entrepreneurs in the power system conducted by the author in 2008-2009, both in Armenia and in Russia by the expert survey.
The article is devoted to problems of mutual relations of business and authority of Armenia of a transition period. In the given work presented results of research of structure of mutual relations of business, authority and a society, motivational mechanisms, systems of valuable orientations of the businessmen, lead by the author in 2005 - 2006: by interview to businessmen, the analysis of poll and mass-media.
Within the framework of the phenomenological approach happiness is defi ned as a socially determined emotional state arising from a subjective interpretation of the reality of a person or group.Attention is paid to the role of social communication to such interpretations, advertising in particular.Advertising is considered in the context of social engineering, the advertising message is interpreted as a social ‘pseudo-project’. Th e role of the social and cultural discourse of advertising to create such ‘pseudo-project’ is analysed with the directions and principles of the appeal to the phenomenon of ‘happiness’ in the construction of the social and cultural discourse of advertising. It is argued that ‘real happiness’ is shown in advertisements as a socially approved pleasure obtained through the purchase of goods or services. Empirical study revealed a positive attitude towards the audience’s appeal to the phenomenon of advertising ‘happiness’. We also studied ‘the criteria of happiness’ which have been used in advertising. Empirical research revealed that the idea of the signifi cance of individual criteria of happiness of the audience and the creators of advertising matches only partially. If the audience is put in the fi rst place on the importance of ‘the ability to do what he likes,’ the advertising messages that motivate the audience can hardly be found. According to other criteria such sharp discrepancies are observed. Th is proves once again that the social representation of happiness is not the same as hedonism — satisfaction conceived irrespective of morality. It can be said that the idea of happiness among viewers of television advertising is consistent with the understanding of the great thinkers of the past: a high degree of socially approved satisfaction from life. Refs 28. Figs 6.
This is an analysis of the social foundations of civil identity and its three principal aspects. The substantial aspect is accumulation and transmission of social memory, sociocultural experiences and social knowledge. The spatial aspect associates the territorial and virtual dimensions of space. The aspect of action relates to the interaction between science, education and business institutions that defines civic identity in contemporary society.
The formation of a new technological paradigm called “Industry 4.0” and the economic structure contributes to the transformation of social reality, in which all spheres of life and behavior of people radically change. The new model of labor and employment by analogy was called “Work 4.0”, it is intensively developed in countries with advanced economies and contains new opportunities, but, at the same time, risks. New forms of labor, cooperation and exchange are developing, the Internet connects people with cars and things. Labor activity becomes transparent and is controlled from the outside. As the boundaries of innovation expand and the opportunities for education improve, the quality of labor resources grows, but the profile of the employee and the requirements put upon him are being changed. Work becomes autonomous and mobile, and the performance of labor functions is associated with the mastery of many competences, among which lifelong learning and digital literacy is given special importance in the digital age. In Russia, the process of transformation of mass labor and employment is much slower, research focuses only on a few so-called “atypical” forms of employment. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the prevalence of new aspects and facets of labor among Russian workers connected with mobility and digital technology. Here secondary data of the RLMS-HSE reveal the prevalence of the use of the Internet in the broad masses of dependent workers (at enterprises, in organizations), a professional profile of employees has been drawn up, and the specifics of their work activities are indicated at the present time. Unfortunately, in Russia both the degree of use of the Internet in performing professional responsibilities, and the development of skills, in comparison with the developed countries, is still at a rather insignificant level. The main goal is regular development of digital competencies for both current and future employees. Refs 22. Tables 5.
Advertising model is considered in terms of Luhmanns concept of social communication, the values approached as means of achieving the advertising success as a social communication. Th eir contribution is estimated using the coeffi cient of structural correlation between the values in advertisements and in the audience. Th e author discovered a group of the most important values for advertising communicative success.