Involuntary remembering of words in various attentional demands
Theoretical accounts of attention and its role in involuntary remembering are discussed within the frameworks of P.I. Zinchenko and levels of processing by Craik and Lockhart. A levels-of-attention framework is proposed on the grounds of the ideas discussed. In the experimental study participants had to perform orienting tasks with words under four different instructions implying different attentional demands with subsequent recall of words, font colors, and spatial locations. Instructions corresponded to hypothetical levels of attention. The fifth condition including voluntary remembering was also used. Recall and confidence rates were measured. Taken together, these two measures revealed a gradual increment in objective (correct recall) and subjective (confidence-related) memory representations of words with hypothetical levels of attention. Nevertheless, voluntary remembering was found to yield maximum recall and confidence rates.