The article reveals the historical debate between Russian psychologist-philosophers (Lossky and Shpet) in relation to Husserlian phenomenology at the beginning of the twentieth century. The debate is relevant in today`s interpretation of the social world and its place in cultural-historical psychology. The article reveals Vygotsky`s problematic choice on this fundamental issue.
In motion-induced blindness (MIB) salient static dots “disappear” when superimposed onto a moving mask. In this article, the modulating effect of voluntary task-divided attention on MIB disappearances is investigated. Two types of tasks were used in turn as the primary and the secondary ones: to detect target dots disappearances (the MIB task) and to detect subjective changes in the direction of mask rotation caused by the motion aftereffect (the MAE task). Thus the allocation of central attention was manipulated while the MIB display remained unchangeable. The focused attention condition (a single task to detect MIB disappearances) and two divided attention conditions (detecting MIB as primary and secondary tasks) were compared. In the focused attention condition, detection of MIB disappearances had the highest task priority and evoked the greatest number of disappearances. The allocation of attention to different tasks led to the dramatic decrease of MIB occurrences and the more so the more priority the second (MAE) task had.
The article is dedicated to the eightieth anniversary of the birth of an outstanding psychologist and educator, V.V. Davydov, who (together with D.B. Elkinin) worked out the psychological principles and pedagogical practice of development of theoretical thinking and the formation in schoolchildren of a readiness to think and ability for conceptual thinking. The article tries to apply the notions of theoretical thinking developed by Davydov to an analysis of thinking per se. The most attention is focused on reflection and intuition.
This article discusses the problems involved in dating the manuscript of "The Historical Meaning of the Crisis in Psychology," which is housed in the Vygotsky family archive, and its connection to other works by Vygotsky (Pedagogical Psychology, "The Science of Psychology," "The Social Transformation of Man"). Vygotsky's personal notes on the problem of the crisis in psychology are also examined.
Theoretical accounts of attention and its role in involuntary remembering are discussed within the frameworks of P.I. Zinchenko and levels of processing by Craik and Lockhart. A levels-of-attention framework is proposed on the grounds of the ideas discussed. In the experimental study participants had to perform orienting tasks with words under four different instructions implying different attentional demands with subsequent recall of words, font colors, and spatial locations. Instructions corresponded to hypothetical levels of attention. The fifth condition including voluntary remembering was also used. Recall and confidence rates were measured. Taken together, these two measures revealed a gradual increment in objective (correct recall) and subjective (confidence-related) memory representations of words with hypothetical levels of attention. Nevertheless, voluntary remembering was found to yield maximum recall and confidence rates.
This article contains new information about the manuscript of "The Historical Meaning of the Crisis in Psychology." It offers a brief description of the physical appearance of the manuscript and a list of the primary changes to the text that was published in the first volume of Vygotsky's collected works. This list includes expunged quotations, ideologically motivated substitutions, as well as fragments of elided or distorted text.
Previous studies revealed the astonishing inability of observers to notice visual change if scene perception is briefly interrupted for some reason. This phenomenon is referred to as change blindness. The present study is aimed to clarify how observers look for visual changes, what strategies they use, and how these strategies affect change blindness. In Experiment 1 participants performed a free search for change in standard flicker paradigm (Rensink, O’Regan, and Clark, 1997). Results of experiment led to some possible classifications of search strategies. Distinction between location-based and object-based strategies is the most essential one. In Experiment 2, these two strategies were isolated by manipulation with special cues at three levels of difficulty of the change detection task. The object-based strategy had been found to be most efficient one and the location-based strategy was helpful in difficult tasks. On the other hand, the location-based strategy was even less effective than free search for visual changes in the accurate identification of changes.
This article discusses the trend in the development of testing from maximum regimentation of the test-takers’ activity (where they solve problems clearly formulated by the creator with a single correct answer) to diagnostic problematic situations that are very new and indefinite with an open beginning and an open end. With increasing frequency, the open beginning used in testing presupposes a freedom of independent formulation of one’s own research questions of the reality being studied and a search for answers while interacting with that reality. The emergence of mass testing of exploratory behavior is a reflection of the conviction that one of the key abilities that will be required in the very near future is the ability to cope with uncertainty and novelty, including by actively investigating them.
The discussion deals with the problems of testing intelligence and creativity in conditions of novelty and uncertainty, including the “judging problem.” It is pointed out that any thinking test, especially a test of creative thinking, is also an implicit (albeit perhaps not conscious) claim by its developers that their wisdom is virtually unsurpassed. After all, it is assumed that any person’s intelligence and creativity that unfold in a new situation may be described in the context of the model produced by the creative intellect of the test’s developer and, hence, by a more powerful “superintellect.” The errors that are practically inevitable with such an approach can be corrected in a dialog among various groups of researchers or, to the contrary, may be deepened if criticism is shut off.
The article analyzes a fundamental methodological error of creativity testing—the “standard list of creative answers” drawn up by the test-maker in advance, against which the participants’ solutions are checked. This error is explored in the case of an invention-oriented task in the international scholastic test PISA 2012, based on which the education ratings of countries are constructed.
An optimistic thesis is offered: no matter how successful testing is, humankind will never be fully prepared to determine its creative potential, due to its forward development. Without diagnostic tools, however, it will be far less prepared; they are a new and important part of that potential.
This article investigates the notebook kept by Lev Vygotsky during the first half of 1926. In addition to discussing the notebook's structure, content, and time frame, the article analyzes its significance within the context of the development of Vygotsky's ideas. Among the notebook's content discussed here are: supplementary material to The Psychology of Art; a preliminary outline for "The Historical Meaning of the Crisis in Psychology"; the first propositions of cultural-historical theory associated with the idea of sign mediation; an outline for the unwritten monograph "Zoon politikon"; as well as thoughts on a general psychological theory of consciousness that assigns a key role to speech and communication in the genesis of consciousness. Particular attention is paid to Vygotsky's remarks on the ontological status of mental reality and the problem of the psychophysical.
When we received the article by Iu. B. Gippenreiter, T. D. Kariagina, & E. N. Kozlova, we turned to specialists working within the framework of person-centered psychology with a request that they express their reaction to the authors' attempt to combine two phenomena (congruence and empathy). A. B. Orlov & M. A. Khazanova expressed their views in the form of an article. In publishing both articles, we want to call attention to the issues in humanistic psychology and to the attempts of Russian psychologists to work within this framework and to promote its development.