Scientific Realism, Truth, and the Underdetermination of Theories by Empirical Data
This is the text of a discussion organized by the Editorial Board of this journal on December 9th, 2015. The debate was devoted to the issue of scientific status of theology and the place of theology among other academic disciplines. Participants of this discussion: historian Olga Vasil'eva (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, since 2016 - Minister of Education and Science of the Russian Federation), philologist Nikolay Grintser (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration), historian Askold Ivanchik (corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences); sociologist Boris Knorre (Higher School of Economics), philosopher Svetlana Konacheva (Russian State University of the Humanities); Alexander Kyrlezhev (scientific editor of this journal); theologian Konstantin Polskov (St.-Tikhon's Orthodox University), scholar of religion Vladislav Razdiakonov (Russian State University of the Humanities); theologian Andrey Shishkov (SS Cyril and Methodius Theological Institute of Post-Graduate Studies).
The concept «transdisciplinarity» genetically goes back to the «interdisciplinarity» designating the important changes that occur in relations between science and culture. «Interdis- ciplinarity» is the major characteristic of a science on the transi- tion from «classical» to «the nonclassical» status. «Transdiscipli- narity» characterizes the science at a «postnonclassical» stage of its development. Both concepts connect the philosophy of science with the philosophy of culture.
The article analyzes a number of modern physics approaches in different aspects, which are directly or indirectly affected by the problem of space. The variations of cosmologies based on the theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, the theory of inflation, the holographic universe model, the model of the virtual universe, etc. and their scientifically validated combinations are examined for specifics of category of space interpretation in each case. In reliance to the historical and philosophical analysis the connection between the traditional interpretations of the concept of space in philosophy and the modern ones in physics is established. The context of some modern physical theories is concluded to bring new dimensions to the understanding of space (while retaining certain classical concepts).
The article deals with the problem of time in the context of several theories of modern physics. The traditional statements on time nature and characteristics (discreteness and continuity, fundamental nature, relativity and absoluteness, etc.) are analyzed according to historical and philosophical perspective and in relation to current physics concepts. Interpretation of arising in modern science innovative time concepts has been conducted. Attempt to clarify the possible answers to the question of what the time is in terms of the philosophy of physics has been made. In addition to the classics, the most recent research, directly or indirectly concerned to the time problem, is under consideration in the analysis. Based on the research, the conclusions according to the current state of the problem and its possible solutions have been made.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.