The concept of social exclusion is currently regarded by researchers in social sciences as a multi-dimensional phenomenon which covers a number of interrelated aspects at a time. It normally involves exclusion from economic life, social services, public life and social networks. In 2010, the European Union adopted “Strategy for Smart, Sustainable and Inclusive Growth” for the period until 2020 which identified clear and quantifiable parameters for reducing the number of the socially excluded in the EU countries. However, no consensus is yet reached at the international level as to the definition of the concept of social exclusion as to the methodology to measure it. The European Union, World Bank, OECD and UN agencies are still using different indicators for assessing poverty, deprivation and social exclusion. In the Russian Federation, the category of social exclusion is rather a theoretical concept than a specific instrument for transforming and implementing social policies. Most Russian studies are discussing the problems of measuring social exclusion at the national level or among specific socially vulnerable population groups. Meanwhile there are now studies concerning spatial dimension of the level of social exclusion of the population of Russian regions. This study is designed to fill this existing gap.
In the article, the symbolic map of dangerous and scary urban places is reconstructed on the basis of the social representations concept. The coordinate system of this 'symbolic map of fears and risks' is represented by the following constructs: 'the City - the Non-City' and 'Me - the Other'. It is argued that, as perceived by urban residents, fearsome places are mainly connected with 'the Others' in the city.
The book describes the problem of transition of different structures of literature in the austrian literature.
The arcticles included in this collection summarize the results of the second stage of international project devoted to history and contemporary state of relations between nieghbouring states, peoples and cultures.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.