ДТП и смертность в России
The article substantiates the concept of quantitative assessment of knowledge uncertainty in accident reconstruction tasks based on application of mathematical tools of the fuzzy set theory allowing considering an uncertainty of initial data caused for instance by varying resistance to the motion of investigated objects at the apex stages of the contact–separation processes. The application of the mathematical tools of the fuzzy set theory can substantially expand the potential of applying the methodology to the automobile and technical expertise and provide the enhancement of authenticity and improve the accuracy of making conclusions about the accident reconstruction results.
The chapter contains the following chapters:Homicide in a historical context Homicide as a cause of death in ICD Long-term dynamics of mortality from homicide in Russia Age-sex peculiarities of mortality from homicide Temporal characteristics, causes, components Factors influencing on mortality from homicide, and prevention Regional differences in mortality from homicide in Russia
The chapter presents a comprehensive analysis of the class "External causes of morbidity and mortality" of the International Classification of Diseases, 1956-2014. Chapter contains the following sections:Mortality from external causes in the context of general mortality, Mortality from external causes by sex and age, Mortality of men and women by the main types of external causes of death, Age specific mortality from main external causes of death Mortality from external causes and life expectancy.
The author argues on expediency and mutual conditionality of evolutionary changes in the nature and in society. In the article three major factors of the evolution are allocated, namely: the accident, the factor of coincidence of circumstances and the factor of acceleration of social evolution.
In the 2nd part of the XX century significant demographic changes occurred in the majority of European countries, in particular it was manifested in the mortality decline and in life expectancy increase. In Russia the mortality trends were different: there was a stagnation period from the mid-60th which was followed by dramatic mortality increase in all age groups except infant. Youth mortality has huge impact on life expectancy and total mortality of the society. Decomposition by age shows that 14% of changes in life expectancy from 1990 to 1995 are young people mortality. Youth mortality is mostly mortality due to external causes. In Russia more than 50% deaths among young women are deaths due to external causes (such as traffic accidents and suicides) and for young men this proportion is 70% This paper examines the reasons of high youth mortality in Russian compare to the other European countries.
Ensuring transport security should be seen as a prerequisite for the realization of transit potential of the country. Transport security, on the one hand belongs to the exogenous geopolitical factors of transit potential realization, and on the other hand describes the quality of transport infrastructure. Consequently, transport security in terms of transit potential realization is defined as: safety from someone's malicious actions and as accident-free, i.e. actions to prevent accidents.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.