Constructing National Ranking Methodology: Dilemmas, Choices, and Decisions
One of the current trends of the Russian Higher Education is strengthening participation of HEIs in global higher education. The increasing number of approaches to universities rankings reflects this trend. International and Russian rankings draw close attention and criticism from academic and expert community. Despite the criticism, rankings outcomes are in demand and influence universities’ promotion and their positioning in the global higher education area. Contemporary Russian rankings systems are diverse and strive to satisfy needs of various stakeholders. However, all these approaches are single dimensional rankings that use a composite indicator and weight coefficients. The presented article describes development of a multidimensional ranking system in Russia. This work has been done in the framework of the project “Developing and Approbating a Template Methodology for National Ranking of Higher Education Institutions” implemented by NTF (2011 – 2013). The authors demonstrate deficiency of league tables; prove relevancy of a chosen approach as it considers complexity and differentiation of the Russian Higher Education system, its current modernization, missions and diversity of the Russian HEIs. Drawn on the project outcomes, the authors present development of the national multidimensional ranking methodology: its concept, choice of indicators, the approbation outcomes, dilemmas and decisions.
During the last decade, the concept of the Knowledge Triangle (KT) in the form of change processes that foster greater interaction between education, research and innovation activities has left the academic community and diffused to the higher education and research policy arena. As a result, numerous policy measures have been developed and implemented aiming at strengthening interaction between the different sides of the knowledge triangle. Similarly, structured and systematic efforts have been taken to describe and understand the important role of universities in the innovation landscape. Universities fulfil numerous missions but they also face the challenge of meeting diverging expectations by different stakeholders. Furthermore, this challenge is complicated by the fact that universities and their surrounding environments are not static but co-develop continuously. The book presents a number of case studies showing how universities react to these changing conditions. It shows examples of aligning universities to the Knowledge Triangle.
The paper covers the issues of accountability of higher education institutions (HEIs) in five countries: Brazil, Canada, Italy, Portugal, and Russia1 . National frameworks and their implementation are examined. The special focus of the review is performance-based evaluation and funding. The reflection on outcomes is followed by the recommendations to policy-makers, researchers and practitioners. This paper was commissioned by the Global Education Monitoring Report as background information to assist in drafting the 2017/8 GEM Report, Accountability in education: Meeting our commitments. It has not been edited by the team. The views and opinions expressed in this paper are those of the author(s) and should not be attributed to the Global Education Monitoring Report or to UNESCO. The papers can be cited with the following reference: “Paper commissioned for the 2017/8 Global Education Monitoring Report, Accountability in education: Meeting our commitments”.
The preservation of historical heritage by means of Museum technologies and the subsequent introduction of information into the educational process of higher educational institutions is an important component in the education of the younger generation. One of the most effective forms of educational work is the museums of higher educational institutions. Such museums clearly demonstrate the achievements of Russian science, technology and culture through the prism of the historical development of a particular higher education institution (for example, the Russian state University of physical culture, sports, youth and tourism).
This paper analyses the link between the efficiency of regional higher education systems and the rates of regional economic development between 2012 and 2015 in Russia. The efficiency scores are calculated at the institutional level using Two-stage Semi-parametric data envelopment analysis. Then, the scores are aggregated at the regional level. We formulate an economic growth model that considers the efficiency of regional higher education systems as one of the explanatory variables. As an econometric method, we employ a robust GMM estimator. The findings highlight a positive, and statistically significant effect of higher education institutions efficiency on the regional economic growth. We also found negative spillover effects.
The paper illustrates capabilities of a new statistical tool developed for comprehensive in-depth quantitative analysis of research and innovation activity of Russian higher education institutions (HEIs). The results of such analysis are applicable for planning, coordination, and control of addressed public polices in S&T and innovation. The novelty of the approach and its implications to official statistics is explained by critical review of existing standard statistical tools for monitoring HEI potential and activities. The review is followed by detailed description of new methodology. The main part of the paper provides descriptive statistics based on the experimental tool as well as conclusions on application of these results for more in-depth analysis and for policy advise to Russian S&T and innovation policy-makers.
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In this paper, we discuss the methods of endowment management existing in the world and their applicability to the Russian university system. The endowment spending research focuses on the following issues: reinvesting endowment income; identifying the size of expendable endowment income; using the endowment body, not onlyincome; choosing endowment spending policy, rule and rate endowments, etc. We provide an overview of endowment fund financial indicators and endowment spending allocationin Russia. Based on the example of the HSE Endowment Fund, we analyze the use of endowment spending rulesand model of financial indicators for 2008–2014. The University’s Endowment Fund endowment spending policies implement the preservation principle, which may be reasonable in a stable economy. However, the viability of the principle is questionable in the crisis, the more so since the endowment is mostly in rubles. Using net asset valuation methods, the HSE Endowment Fund could provide equity betweengenerations with annual distribution of income in favor of the next and current generations.
This paper considers how to analyze the performance indicators of universities. The data of this study comes from Russian National Research Universities' statements that are available in open access on official web sites. The main purpose of this study is to define via factor analysis the most important indicators for ranking and performance auditing behind the constellations of performance measures. For this purposes Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used. Then we conducted factor analysis by using the extraction method with principal component analysis to choose the main factors for rating and performance auditing. We suggest using the factor analysis result for evaluation of an auditee.
The system of higher education in Russia is developing rapidly in accordance with global trends and processes occurring in the world. On the one hand, we feel a significant influence of the Bologna process, when students of different specialties get the opportunity to enroll in any master’s program: in Russia, the master’s program is not always seen as a deepening and specialization in the field of knowledge already received in the undergraduate program, but also as an opportunity to get a completely new specialty (for example, a student with a bachelor’s degree in biotechnology may attempt to get a master’s degree in Innovation management). On the other hand, Russian universities are interested in attracting foreign students, the number of whom has recently increased significantly. In connection with these trends, educational institutions face plenty of challenges that complicate the educational process and also affect its effectiveness. This is especially evident in the master’s training, where in a relatively short period (one/two years) a student must master the specialty at a sufficiently high professional level. To implement this, students should have satisfactory knowledge when entering a master’s program. However, the system of entrance examinations in the Russian Federation is highly regulated: tests in the entrance examination work lead to the problem of “guessing” the correct answers and do not always provide a correct assessment of students’ knowledge. This gives rise to another important problem: students with good command of the specialization (who have studied the necessary subjects at the undergraduate level for 4 years) and students who are not always familiar with the material are in the same class. This greatly complicates the educational process. In this regard, the Faculty of Economics in Lomonosov Moscow State University attempted to resolve these challenges not in the learning process, but at the stage of preparation for entering the master’s program. In the proposed article we describe the experience of developing a distance system for training foreign students for one of the master programs at a Russian university, which reduces the gap between the knowledge of enrolling students, improves professional vocabulary in Russian, and also provides an opportunity to get acquainted with the cultural features of education in Russian universities. All these are to lead to an increase in the efficiency of the master courses educational process.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.