Ценностная гетерогенность населения европейских стран: типология по показателям Р.Инглхарта
The book is comprised of 24 studies examining the changes in values throughout the process of transformation in the post-communist countries and, in general, the questions of values, their conceptualization and research as well as their role in the process of transformation and stratification. The studies present a new concept of empirical sociological study of values, cultural resources in class reproduction and ideology, problems of hedonism, social trust, cohesion, historical and cultural tradition and many other aspects of development of value structure in post-communist societies.
This chapter is devoted to cultural values influence on economic and social change.
The book describes consequnces of culture in Russia.
This chapter is devoted to the study of performative solidarities (Alexander 2006, 2008) which became an important part of the discourses on identity and historic heritage in the post-Soviet countries and the process of value change. The mechanism of emergence of such discourses and their course and consequences are studied in Russia and Estonia.
The collection represents the materials of the 2nd International scientific conference “The theoretical problems of ethnic and cross-cultural psychology” May, 30-31, 2014 held by Smolensk University for Humanities. The participants from Russia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Israel, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Republic of Korea, Ukraine, Uzbekistan shared their methodological and theoretical approaches to such basic scientific issues as transformation of the ethnic identity, cultural influence on the personality, cross-cultural interaction, ethnic conflicts, migration and acculturation psychology, ethnic socialization, policultural formation. The book might be of interest for psychologists, ethnologists, philosophers, anthropologists and other specialists working with ethnic and cross-cultural psychology.
The basic values of the Russian population and the population of thirty-one European countries were compared with data obtained by Schwartz Questionnaire embedded into the fourth round of the European Social Survey. Conclusions about similarities and differences of basic human values between Russia and other European countries confirm the thesis that Russia is a country which shares with the other world the general logic of cultural and social development and which has a lot in common with the countries of similar economic level and recent political history. In most value comparisons Russia appeared to be closer to the Post-Communist and to the Mediterranean countries than to Western European or Nordic countries.
The fact that the Russians are less committed than most Europeans to the values of caring, tolerance, equality and ecology and conversely more than most Europeans committed to the competitive "zero- sum” values of personal success, wealth and power confirms the validity of current moral criticism of mass values and morals in Russia. The other disturbing fact is the relatively low commitment of Russians to the values of Openness to Change and conversely a strong focus on Conservation. So the Russian basic values create a cultural barrier to the development of innovative economy and to the society development as a whole.
Thanks to the shift from the country to an individual and group level of analysis we challenge the notion of the "average Russian" and demonstrate that the Russian value majority consists of two subtypes. Russia has the sizable value minority also and its members share the values atypical for most of the Russians. Two value minorities which embrace 19% of Russian population are more committed to values of Openness and Self-Transcendence than the rest of the Russian population. These value groups are typical for the European countries with more prosperous and happy populations and we can hypothesize that in Russia they are resource groups for the country advancement also.
The results of research of different areas of personality of homeless men: values, life attitudes, activity, homelessness area is presents. The data indicate the presence of a number of characteristics inherent in varying degrees all homeless people. The data obtained can be used to build an effective program of psychological re-socialization of homeless people.
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.