Internal solitary waves: propagation, deformation and disintegration
In coastal seas and straits, the interaction of barotropic tidal currents with the continental shelf, seamounts or sills is often observed to generate large-amplitude, horizontally propagating internal solitary waves. Typically these waves occur in regions of variable bottom topography, with the consequence that they are often modeled by nonlinear evolution equations of the Korteweg-de Vries type with
variable coecients. We shall review how these models are used to describe the propagation, deformation and disintegration of internal solitary waves as they propagate over the continental shelf and slope.
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
Abstract The paper reveals the influence of vertical integration on the performance of companies in emerging markets, calculated as Lerner index. The model was developed to estimate the impact of vertically integrated companies, as well as in case of disintegration. The empirical correlation of profitability of companies from BRIC and the factors defining it in case of vertical integration was investigated, which was tested on the data for 2004-2012. Key significant factors in a cut of branches and the countries from BRIC are defined. The study will help to understand whether there is a trend towards diminishing dependency of the efficiency of companies’ performance from the high rate of vertical integration in the emerging capital markets and whether the economy of developing countries is ready to create competitive market conditions with a lot of independent companies in the industries where currently prevails oligopoly. The results of this work will allow companies’ management choose the optimal way of development in the context of possible vertical integration or disintegration transactions in a particular industry. Current research was motivated by trend towards disintegration with the creation of several competitive niche companies instead of one large in developed capital markets. At the same time, the evidences of effectiveness of both independent companies and vertically integrated giants in the industry are stated. To find out which strategy is more effective, this paper analyzes the influence of the vertical integration degree on the efficiency of companies’ performance.
Non-reflective propagation of kink waves in solar magnetic tubes.
The paper contains highlighting and theoretical level analysis of the factors positively and negatively influencing profitability of vertically integrated and non-integrated companies. Advantages and disadvantages of choosing the strategy of vertical integration are proved along with systematization of main approaches to these item researching. The difference of the efficiency between the integrated and non-integrated companies’ performance is considered, which is the key issue of the best way of large companies development. The central issue of the research, that is based on the theory highlighted in this paper, is the utility of existence of large vertically integrated companies in emerging capital markets. Are such companies improving the whole economy of an emerging country or are they slowdown transition to market relations in all industries? This article was motivated by the trend in developed capital markets towards dividing big holding companies to small segmental units.
The efficiency of vertically integrated companies’ performance should be studied through comparison the whole corporation and a set of detached businesses, that could be parts of integrated company. The simplest way of such analysis, which was used by the first researchers in this field, is to compare total costs and to depict different types of economies. On the more sophisticated level of analysis must be taken into account such issues as principal-agent problem, technological economies and risk level minimization under the conditions of legal restrictions, which limits costs saving between two branches of one company. The third approach to consider all influencing companies’ performance factors is the analysis of financial figures, especially the analysis of different ratios, that can show relative efficiency of companies. By doing such analysis not only traditional components of synergetic effect are taken into consideration, but also financial features of M&A deals that can lead to a bankruptcy are covered.
This aim of this paper is the interpretation of the results of mechanical testing of materials to determine their properties under hot deformation. As an example, a simulation of rod stretching in superplasticity mode was considered. Comparing obtained data with the analytical solution was conducted.
One of the key advances in genome assembly that has led to a significant improvement in contig lengths has been improved algorithms for utilization of paired reads (mate-pairs). While in most assemblers, mate-pair information is used in a post-processing step, the recently proposed Paired de Bruijn Graph (PDBG) approach incorporates the mate-pair information directly in the assembly graph structure. However, the PDBG approach faces difficulties when the variation in the insert sizes is high. To address this problem, we first transform mate-pairs into edge-pair histograms that allow one to better estimate the distance between edges in the assembly graph that represent regions linked by multiple mate-pairs. Further, we combine the ideas of mate-pair transformation and PDBGs to construct new data structures for genome assembly: pathsets and pathset graphs.