Особенности демографических процессов в городах Кызыл и Элиста в 2011–2020 годы: сравнительный анализ
The article compares the demographic situation and related processes in Kyzyl and Elista, the capitals of two of Russia’s constituent republics — Tuva and Kalmykia, respectively. The authors have focused on the changes in three major demographic processes — fertility, mortality and migration — as well as demographic structures and behaviours. The authors have also calculated birth rates, migration indices (including age-specific rates) and examined the age and gender structure of the demographics, drawing up the demographic balance for both Kyzyl and Elista.
Despite their evident similarity due to comparable population size and its share in the grand total for the republic, both of which have complex ethnoconfessional structure, demographic processes at Kyzyl and Elista have their own specific features. In Kyzyl, a combination of natural population increase and migration-related decrease leads to an overall population rise. In Elista, on the contrary, the rise has recently notably slowed down, largely due to a much older demographics, with low birth rates and high mortality rates.
Applying the natural population movement rates (which are independent of age structure distortions) to the situation in each of the cities shows that the birth and mortality rates are higher in Kyzyl. In Elista both men and women, as well as the population in total, on average live longer. Migration patterns in both cities are similar, but Kyzyl features a more intense migration among the females, as well as higher departure rates among elder citizens, which helps optimize the population’s age structure.
Since access to statistical data on the municipal level has been limited until recently, and the methodology of analyzing these data has been underdeveloped, many of the methods and indicators have been for the first time apllied in this study to demographic processes in Kyzyl and Elista.