How Post-Soviet Russian Academia Struggles with the Past
Dynamics of the age structure of the professoriate in Kazan, St. Petersburg, Moscow, and Dorpat universities is analysed from their origins through 1884. The study is based on a prosopographical database containing records on the principal events of university professors' lives and careers compiled by the authors. New methods of data retrieval and visualisation based on scripts written in R programming language allow to analyse the temporal dynamics of the age structure in finest details. From the perspective of the temporal dynamics of the age structure, the history of university can be subdivided into periods of gradual concerted aging of a nearly stable population and much shorter periods of rather dramatic rejuvenation. The latter are usually (un)intended by-procucts of active interventions by Educational district Curators or the Ministry of Education in the routine process of hiring and firing the university professors. The analysis reveals a peculiar pattern of the aging / rejuvenation periods in Kazan university that differs significantly from more or less concerted dynamics of the remaining three universities under study. All remarkable rearrangements in the body of professors of Kazan University as well as their effects on the age structure are discussed in detail. A number of factors contributing to the unique character of aging / rejuvenation patterns in Kazan university (shortages of the early period of Kazan university history, constant deficiency of qualified candidates to fill the vacant positions, and active interventions by Educational district Curators) are discussed.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.