Становление и развитие деловых элит в России и странах зарубежья
The article researches the elites' revolution in Russia in context of foundation and development of business elites in the world economics. The author focuses his attention on the historical examples of the business elites' forming in Venice, Holland, Great Britain, Germany, the USA, Italy, China.
In the current paper I analyze business ethics orientations of representatives of Russian business society in order to reveal whether they are relevant to the sociocultural modernization. Namely, the level of modernization of ethical orientations of business community is estimated. Both attitudes towards business ethics and towards strict adherence to the law are the key factors of sociocultural modernization. A number of in-depth interviews with the graduates of MBA programs and the survey of MBA students serve as empirical base of the study. MBA students represent different groups of business community sharing the same intention – orientation on human capital accumulation and openness to new. According to the results, the representatives of business community consider business ethics very important and admit that it is obligatory to follow it. At the same time, they opine that the benefits of following business ethics is more evident in long-term perspective, whereas in short-term perspective it can lead to negative consequences. The viewpoints about the relation between business ethics and strict adherence to the law differ a lot.
The achieved positions in the business elite system for the first time in the Russian post-Soviet context set the tasks of socio-economic self-determination before the second generation of owners of large businesses, their heirs. Will they simply be beneficiaries of property or business successors, will they be engaged in something different in the professional plan or will they prefer to spend? The answers to these questions will allow us to contour the research field of social mobility in these social strata.
In this chapter, we will look at the subjective and objective aspects of educational and professional trajectories in the careers of the leaders of large corporations as representatives of the management elite. At the conceptual level, here we operate with a number of concepts - life path, career trajectory, transitions, turning points, as well as in the subjective aspect of social mobility - the dynamics of status identity as a delegated social actor to narrativize the subjectively important turning points of the educational and professional trajectory. In empirical terms, we involve both the narrative, the origin of which is in the biographical interview, and the respondent’s publicly disclosed data in the form of several summaries reflecting the mobility of his status identity. In addition, the empirical summary array of CEOs of large corporations on the subject of the obtained qualification level for the head of the company, the time spent on the upward trajectory of a representative of the management elite, the differences associated with generational cohorts, as well as the specifics of social and professional mobility from previous professional groups.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.