Институциональное наследие Фрэнсиса Бэкона
Throughout the twentieth century, glaciologists and geophysicists from Denmark, Norway andSweden made important scientific contributions across the Arctic and Antarctic. This research was of acute security and policy interest during the Cold War, as knowledge of the polar regions assumed military importance. But scientists also helped make the polar regionsNordic spaces in a cultural and political sense, with scientists from Norden punching far above their weight in terms of population, geographical size or economic activity. This volume presents an image of Norden that stretches far beyond its conventional limits,covering a vast area in the North Atlantic and the Arctic Sea, as well as parts of Antarctica. Rich in resources, scarce in population, but critically important in global and regional geopolitics, these spaces were contested by major powers such as Russia, the United States, Canada and, in the Antarctic, Argentina, Australia, South Africa and others. The empirical focus on Danish, Norwegian and Swedish influence in the polar regions during the twentieth century embraces a diverse array of themes, from the role of science in policy and diplomacy to the tensions between nationalism and internationalism, with clear relevance to the important role science plays in contemporary discussions about Nordic engagement with the polar regions.
The two outstanding Russian thinkers of the 20th century, Fedor Avgustovich Stepun (Friedrich Steppuhn) and Boris Petrovich Vysheslavtsev, shared not only many of their philosophic ideas, but the vicissitudes of fate as well. Both completed their studies of philosophy in Germany, both emerged as important figures in the Russian pre-revolutionary thought and both were expelled from the country on board the ill-famous "philosophers' steamboat" in 1922. Once abroad, their lives took different courses, but they never lost view one of another. Either one in a different manner, they both pointed out that 20th century is the time of the triumph of irrationalism which totally overwhelmed and suppressed what had been remaining of the rationalist and positivist 19th century. According to them, it was the irrationalism which became the major cause of all the tragedies they witnessed. The author also publishes Stepun's letters to Vysheslavtsev illustrating their intellectual affinity and mutual interest. In Appendix the reader will find published an hitherto little known text by Stepun on bolshevism.
The article provides a brief overview of life and works by I. Kh. Ozerov (1869-1942), a professor of financial law at Moscow and St. Petersburg State Universities, in terms oh his contribution into financial and legal studies in Russia at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. The article precedes the publication of a work by I. Kh. Ozerov On the research methods in financial studies which formulate the sociological methods of investigating the financial relationships.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.