Выявление монополизма на производных рынках
The article is devoted to the questions of functioning markets related to base market. The problems of identification product and geographic market boundaries and monopolization of base market influence on such markets are analyzed. As an example in the research the telecom market is considered.
This article is devoted to some aspects of antitrust law influence on economical processes. Considered problems are interconnection antitrust regulation and innovation activity, applicability of antitrust law terms and applicability of geographic market for retail markets.
In both the US and the EU, the antitrust category of “sham litigation” (in the US) or “vexatious litigation” (in the EU) enables a plaintiff, or a defendant in case this action forms part of a counterclaim, to argue that the introduction of litigation may constitute, under certain conditions, an infringement of competition law. This naturally leads to the question of what is a workable standard for establishing the existence of sham litigation, and how it is possible to distinguish between the legitimate use of the regulatory/litigation process and strategic attempts to use the process in order to restrict competition. Legal and economic literature, as well as the courts, have struggled to define operational tests enabling them to determine the boundaries of the “sham”/“vexatious” litigation antitrust category. The paper examines the intellectual underpinnings of this form of abusive/anticompetitive conduct and puts forward a “mechanism design approach” with the aim to reduce the occurrence of sham litigation.
The tutorial deals with the application of the basic principles of structured programming in complex software systems in the high-level C ++ language, which are demonstrated with meaningful examples.
In the near future the possibilities of the modern probabilistic models, artificial intelligence and machine learning methods can provide an intelligent support of making decisions by an operator in real time. An agile recovery of intelligent manufacturing integrity can be implemented owing to the development of industrial robotics. For intelligent manufacturing it means the expected reliability and safety may be in the near future at the expense of intelligent support of decision making and the agile recovery of integrity. To answer the question “How much essential may be this increasing?” here are proposed: general analytical approaches for a probabilistic estimation of the expected reliability and safety for every monitored element or the system of intelligent manufacturing on a level of probability distribution functions (PDF) of the time between the losses of system integrity; estimations of increasing the expected reliability and safety for intelligent manufacturing at the expense of the intelligent support of decision making and agile recovery of integrity; the comparisons of the estimations on a prognostic period up to 10 years using the identical model in applications to expected reliability and safety. The applications of the proposed approaches allow the customers, designers, developers, users and experts of Industry 4.0 intelligent manufacturing to be guided by the proposed probabilistic estimations for solving problems of reliability and safety in the system life cycle. The results are demonstrated by examples
In the article sense is treated as a multidimensional phenomenon and intention as its most essential element. The author shows the role of lexical operators (performatives, modal verbs, words and particles) at intentional sense generation.
The telecommunication industry is a backbone of fourth industrial revolution and the emerging digital economy. Being one of the most competitive industries in terms of services quality, its service providers are looking at business expansion towards B2B and B2G clients. In this study we analyze and re-share the underlying end-2-end processes and list the certain steps through the eTOM framework. The study suggests improvements for telecommunications companies worldwide.
The book deals with the problem of human trust and distrust of technology, that is, the socio-psychological attitude to technology, which manifests itself in the conditions of interaction with it. A feature of this work is to consider the trust and distrust of technology as relative independent relationship. The criteria by which the subjects determine the attitude of trust or distrust in technology, studied conditions for their manifestation; a psychological typology of trust and distrust in technology has been developed; the specificity of manifestations of trust and distrust of different categories of subjects in relation to different types of technology has been established; analysis of the possibility of control changes in the expression of trust and mistrust in relation to technology and considered factors contributing to an increase in trust and reducing distrust.
The paper studies a problem of optimal insurer’s choice of a risk-sharing policy in a dynamic risk model, so-called Cramer-Lundberg process, over infinite time interval. Additional constraints are imposed on residual risks of insureds: on mean value or with probability one. An optimal control problem of minimizing a functional of the form of variation coefficient is solved. We show that: in the first case the optimum is achieved at stop loss insurance policies, in the second case the optimal insurance is a combination of stop loss and deductible policies. It is proved that the obtained results can be easily applied to problems with other optimization criteria: maximization of long-run utility and minimization of probability of a deviation from mean trajectory.