Выявление монополизма на производных рынках
The article is devoted to the questions of functioning markets related to base market. The problems of identification product and geographic market boundaries and monopolization of base market influence on such markets are analyzed. As an example in the research the telecom market is considered.
In the near future the possibilities of the modern probabilistic models, artificial intelligence and machine learning methods can provide an intelligent support of making decisions by an operator in real time. An agile recovery of intelligent manufacturing integrity can be implemented owing to the development of industrial robotics. For intelligent manufacturing it means the expected reliability and safety may be in the near future at the expense of intelligent support of decision making and the agile recovery of integrity. To answer the question “How much essential may be this increasing?” here are proposed: general analytical approaches for a probabilistic estimation of the expected reliability and safety for every monitored element or the system of intelligent manufacturing on a level of probability distribution functions (PDF) of the time between the losses of system integrity; estimations of increasing the expected reliability and safety for intelligent manufacturing at the expense of the intelligent support of decision making and agile recovery of integrity; the comparisons of the estimations on a prognostic period up to 10 years using the identical model in applications to expected reliability and safety. The applications of the proposed approaches allow the customers, designers, developers, users and experts of Industry 4.0 intelligent manufacturing to be guided by the proposed probabilistic estimations for solving problems of reliability and safety in the system life cycle. The results are demonstrated by examples
In both the US and the EU, the antitrust category of “sham litigation” (in the US) or “vexatious litigation” (in the EU) enables a plaintiff, or a defendant in case this action forms part of a counterclaim, to argue that the introduction of litigation may constitute, under certain conditions, an infringement of competition law. This naturally leads to the question of what is a workable standard for establishing the existence of sham litigation, and how it is possible to distinguish between the legitimate use of the regulatory/litigation process and strategic attempts to use the process in order to restrict competition. Legal and economic literature, as well as the courts, have struggled to define operational tests enabling them to determine the boundaries of the “sham”/“vexatious” litigation antitrust category. The paper examines the intellectual underpinnings of this form of abusive/anticompetitive conduct and puts forward a “mechanism design approach” with the aim to reduce the occurrence of sham litigation.
In the article sense is treated as a multidimensional phenomenon and intention as its most essential element. The author shows the role of lexical operators (performatives, modal verbs, words and particles) at intentional sense generation.
This article is devoted to some aspects of antitrust law influence on economical processes. Considered problems are interconnection antitrust regulation and innovation activity, applicability of antitrust law terms and applicability of geographic market for retail markets.
The tutorial deals with the application of the basic principles of structured programming in complex software systems in the high-level C ++ language, which are demonstrated with meaningful examples.