Взаимосвязь воспринимаемой целостности группы и групповой активности
The article discusses the perception of social groups, in particular, their entitativity. Different approaches to determining the entitavity of the social group are reviewed. A parallel between the perception of the entitativity of the group and assignation of different levels of activity to the group is declared.
A load criminal case - a mail-coach robbery aggergated by a double murder - drew the public attention in Russia in 1850s. The study is basen upon archival documents allowing to expose the mechanism of the crime, the motives and circumstances of the case. It elucidates certain aspects of antropology of Russian people of different social groups.
We make a reconstruction of the main approaches to the study of lay theories of groups, communities and societies, propose a classification and systematization of the main areas which have developed in the framework of cognitive science that address the specifics of the perception of social entities (groups, communities, societies). It is shown that in spite of the weak correspondence of lay notions to the modern scientific theories, the former can serve as a basis for a better understanding of social phenomena.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.