This paper presents the results of empirical research of the interaction between career motivation, self-monitoring and generational differences. Data were collected from 142 full-time newcomers of two organizations in Saint-Petersburg. The following questionnaires were used: the self-monitoring scale developed by Snyder M.; the career anchors scale developed by Schein E., which was extended by the patriotism scale from the culture appeal questionnaire developed by Snetkov V. as well as the organizational commitment questionnaire developed by Porter. L.
Results indicate the self-monitoring and career anchors significant differences among three generations: Baby Boomers (1946-1964), Generation X (1965-1983), Generation Y (1984 or later) as well as their influence for on-boarding outcomes.
This research shows that Baby Boomers and Generation X have more adaptable characteristics toward achieving organizational socialization. Generation Y is harder to integrate into corporate structures as this group has own social attitudes and assumptions about organization life.
Real-life identities may diff er from “virtual” identities presented in social networks. Many social networkers construct diverse (more than one) virtual identities, which differ by numerous parameters. Two or more identities constructed by a social networker we call alternative identities. Empirical study is based on a case developed by the Harvard Good Play Project; semi-structured interviews were held with 42 participants (social networkers) in three age groups (15—17, 18—21, 22—25; equal number of females and males in each group). Computer content analysis, narrative analysis of the interview materials and variance analysis were done. Results refer to reasons for and attitudes towards construction of alternative identities; age and gender diff erences are analyzed.
The article discusses the perception of social groups, in particular, their entitativity. Different approaches to determining the entitavity of the social group are reviewed. A parallel between the perception of the entitativity of the group and assignation of different levels of activity to the group is declared.
Relevance. Scientific and scientific-organizational activity of a worldfamous psychologist A.N. Leontiev is a constant interest of specialists in the field of humanistics, methodologists and historians of psychology. In connection with the 115th anniversary of this outstanding scientist, it seems relevant to remind readers of the poorly studied aspects of his life creation.
Objective. Description of contribution А.N. Leontiev in the development of engineering-psychological, ergonomic and reflexive-acmeological problems in the 1950-1970’s.
Methods. Science-research analysis (from the positions of reflexive psychology and personology), and methodological analysis.
Results. The author analyzes such aspects of the scientific heritage of A.N. Leontiev, as his fundamental research of productive thinking and scientific creativity, as well as applied developments in the field of engineering psychology and ergonomics. The fundamental contribution of the scientist to modern human studies and to the institutional construction of psychological science is shown.
Conclusions. Scientific creativity of A.N. Leontiev in the field of psychology is interdisciplinary in nature, because it synthesizes the methodological orientations of modern humanities - natural science, technology cybernetic, social and humanitarian. The crown of the enormous scientific and organizational activity of A.N. Leontiev became a large-scale institutionalization of Russian psychology, which demanded from him not less vision and intuition, intelligence and will, diplomacy and energy than his outstanding creative activity in the field of philosophy, psychology, ergonomics and pedagogy.
Gender differences of self-assessed intelligence (SAI) and its linkage with academic performance are reviewed on the sample of 500 university students, specializing in psychology. Significant difference in SAI between men and women is shown: men estimate their IQ higher than women. The possibility of reviewing SAI as a mediating variable between intellectual potential, personal traits and academic performance is discussed.
Based on the data obtained from the survey (n=733) among students, conducted among first-year students of the faculty of psychology of Moscow State University and among the clients of the veterinary surgeon in 2008-2012, we have analyzed the dependence of the frequency of occurrence of pets, which respondents considered “family member”, on the age of child/children in the family at the time of their purchase. Our findings may indicate a nonrandom occurrence of pets in families. The decision to purchase a pet, apparently, occurs at moments of acute anxiety in the family associated with the normative crises of passage stages of the life cycle: the separation of children (school age and the notorious “teenage” crisis). Pets, due to the nature of their communication (emotional) relationships with people, can stabilize the family system in times of crises. Key words: pet, systemic approach, triangulation, family psychology, family normative crises, animal-children relationships.
The article presents the result of a series of five empirical studies. Across multiple samples with typical development we have established a set of relationships between decision making strategies in Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and such traits as intelligence (general, verbal), executive functions (shifting and inhibition), as well as personality traits of tolerance/intolerance for uncertainty and Big Five personality traits.
The series of empirical studies aimed at verifying a set of hypotheses regarding th e role of intelligence and tolerance/intolerance for uncertainty as predictors of choice strategies in IGT, regarding the contribution of executive functions to the regulation of these strategies, as well as identifying the specifics of prognostic strategies of professionals whose occupation involves high risk – i.e., military leaders.
The main measure was Iowa Gambling Task. This task relies on the prognostic/anticipatory activity of the person playing the game that regulates the sequence of choices that they make from four decks of “cards” that have a probabilistic structure of gains and losses, unknown to the participant at the beginning. According to A. Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis, emotional components play a key role in decision making regulation.
Studies 1 through 3 recruited undergraduate students and general population samples; studies 4 and 5 relied on samples of military leaders.
In addition to the IGT, we also measures a set of cognitive and personality traits, including executive functions (using the Go/No Go paradigm), intelligence (using ROADS and ICAR), tolerance - intolerance for uncertainty (using the NTN questionnaire), Big Five personality traits
(using the TIPI questionnaire), and personal factors of decision making (using the LFR questionnaire).
The studies revealed significant and positive contributions of intelligence and executive functions (i.e., shifting and inhibition) to decisional efficiency and the development of choice strategies, thus implicating cognitive orienting as the key component of decision making in IGT. We also established a set of group differences in both strategies and patterns of the regulation of choices in IGT between military and non - military samples. We also found that it is specifically during early game stages (characterized by maximal uncertainty) that specific personality traits contribute most to decision making – tolerance for uncertainty was such a predictor for our non - military samples, and risk readiness acted as one in military leaders. Conventional Big Five personality traits did not contribute to participants’ performance in the IGT.
Relevance. The success of the foreign students learning depends on the socio-cultural adaptation in the host country. Students studied in Russia use a variety of behavioral, emotional and cognitive coping strategies to deal with stress. Dominant coping strategies help to adapt more easily to new conditions of the educational environment of the university. At the same time, in addition to academic, personal and socio-psychological adaptation, for international students, adaptation to a new culture also causes some difficulties. Despite the existence of a small number of studies aimed at studying the adaptation strategies of foreign students, it should be noted that in most of them students are not differentiated by nationality and by the division by cultural specifics. Coping strategies are related to the extent to which the culture of foreign students differ from the culture of the host country.
Objective. The purpose of the work was to identify the characteristics of coping strategies and differences in the scales of sociocultural adaptation among foreign students, depending on their belonging to culture.
Methods. Two questionnaires were used as a methodological tool: Revised Sociocultural Adaptation Scale (SCAS-R) (Wilson, 2013) and Strategic Approach to Coping Scale (SACS) (Vodopyanova, Starchenkova, 2009). In the presented research features of coping strategies and differences in scales of sociocultural adaptation are revealed. Students from former CIS countries (n = 65) and China (n = 39), currently studying at Russian universities acted as respondents.
Results. In the course of the study, it was revealed that among the representatives of the former CIS countries, whose culture is similar to Russian in terms of polyactivity, collectivism and polychronicity, indirect and passive (cautious model of behavior) coping strategy are dominant. While students from China, whose culture can be characterized as highly contextual, reactive, with a predominance of collectivism and feminism, the pro-social strategy of behavior is dominant, which is expressed in the search for social support and entry into social contact. On the scales of sociocultural adaptation, there are differences in academic adaptation and the level of proficiency in language.
Conclusion. Representatives of highly contextual and reactive cultures (Chinese students) mostly difficult adapt to the specifics of education, the requirements of higher education and communication in the native language of the host country. The same type of culture underlies the formation of a prosocial strategy. Indirect and passive coping strategies dominate among representatives of polyactive and polychronous type of culture.
The paper discusses the role of hardiness in organizations and the issues of its assessment. The results of a study aimed at development and validation of a short 24-item Russian version of the Hardiness Survey by D.A. Leontiev and E.I. Rasskazova are presented. Using a student sample data (N=1285), a subset from the set of 45 existing items were selected for the short version that was subsequently validated in a large process plant employee sample (N=4647). Using confirmatory factor analysis, a one-dimensional structure of the test was supported (with a single hardiness factor and two independent method factors corresponding to systematic bias associated with regular and reverse-scored items). The resulting shortened scale showed high reliability (Cronbach’s alpha of 0.91). Convergent validity was demonstrated by predictable associations with other measures of psychological well-being, including dispositional optimism, optimistic attributional style, hope, general self-efficacy, tolerance for ambiguity, subjective vitality, life satisfaction, work satisfaction, and intrinsic motivation in academic and professional domains. The resulting short version of the Hardiness Survey can be recommended for diverse samples.
The paper is devoted to approaches to the quality of life in different human sciences (psychology, medicine, economics, sociology) and demands to the methods of the diagnostics. Major types of diagnostic instruments (population-based indicators and indexes, standardized questionnaires, individualized techniques) are reviewed; their strengths and limitations are discussed.