О бифуркациях, меняющих гомотопический тип замыкания инвариантного седлового многообразия диффеоморфизма поверхности
It is well known from the homotopy theory of surfaces that an ambient isotopy does not change the homotopy type of a closed curve. Using the language of dynamical systems, this means that an arc in the space of diffeomorphisms that joins two isotopic diffeomorphisms with invariant closed curves in distinct homotopy classes must go through bifurcations. A scenario is described which changes the homotopy type of the closure of the invariant manifold of a saddle point of a polar diffeomorphism of a 2-torus to any prescribed homotopically nontrivial type. The arc constructed in the process is stable and does not change the topological conjugacy class of the original diffeomorphism. The ideas that are proposed here for constructing such an arc for a 2-torus can naturally be generalized to surfaces of greater genus.