Наука и инновации в условиях кризиса: статистический анализ
The state of R&D and national innovation indicators under conditions of the crisis is analyzed. Main tendencies of expenditures on science are identified: by sources of financing; by social and economic aims; by types of expenditures; in comparison with foreign countries. Comparative analysis of the level of innovation activity in Russia and in foreign countries' economies is presented. Trends related to the perspective of development of technological and non-technological (organizational and marketing) innovations under conditions of crisis are considered. Indicators of investments in technological innovations by kinds of innovative activities, types of innovations and sources of financing are analyzed. The impact of innovations is estimated.
The given work is devoted the analysis of factors which brake development of personnel potential of a modern Russian science. In connection with necessity of transition to active use of knowledge as source of growth for the answer to a question on why the eff orts undertaken by the state, dont solve a personnel problem in a science, attempt to use the approaches useful in an explanation of the new phenomena in real sector of economy, but earlier inapplicable to specifi city of scientifi c activity is made.
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.