Последствия правовых актов: оценка и коррекция
A lot of legislations are made in the process of public administration, municipalmanagement and economic activity of the respective offices. Th oughthese acts of legislation help to solve important aspects of socio-economic development,their quality does not provide effective management, regulation andmonitoring. Th e eff orts made to prepare and pass the bills are not always adequatetheir realization actions and analysis of their eff ects. A group of scientists fromthe Institute of Legislations Research and some law professors (U.A.Tihomirov,E.V. Cherepanova, B.M. Baranov) analyze this hypothesis within the frame work of the theme “Monitoring is a means to analyze the effects of normativelegal acts”. Th e research is provided by the program of fundamental scientifi cresearches of the State University – Higher School of Economics. Th e articleconsiders the results of the research.
This topic is necessary to understand where the law comes from, from which sources it is possible to obtain information about legal norms. These sources in different legal families do not coincide, therefore, at least a brief overview of the peculiarities of sources of law in different countries is needed. This topic should equip students with knowledge of types of sources of law, peculiarities of legal customs, normative legal acts, normative treaties, judicial and administrative precedents, legal doctrines as sources of law.
"Normative legal acts" - one of the key topics of the course, which is essential for understanding the Fundamentals of law in general. Students should understand the signs of normative legal acts, distinguishing normative legal acts from individual ones. One of the tasks of the topic is to show the peculiarity of the system of normative legal acts in such a federal state as Russia, to clearly delineate in this system four "floors" - federal, regional (constituent entities of the Russian Federation), municipal and local, to understand their features and purpose. It is very important that the students understand the hierarchical principle of constructing a system of normative legal acts, the subordination of acts in this system to the higher ones. Students should understand the principle of the operation of normative legal acts in time, in space and in a circle of persons, without which the practical application of normative legal acts is impossible.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.