Математика и метафизика в "Диссертации о комбинаторном искусстве" Г.В. Лейбница
The publication presents the Russian translation of selected chapters from "Dissertatio de Arte Combinatoria" by G.W. Leibniz, one of his earliest works. These chapters were published separately in 1666 under the title "Disputatio Arithmetica de complexionibus" and never translated into Russian. In his introduction the translator analyses the main themes of the "Dissertation" in there connection to the projects of universal science developed by R. Lull, E. Weigel, J. Biesterfeld and in the context of metaphysical and logical researches of Leibniz.
Cet ouvrage vise à déterminer la manière de travailler qui est propre à la philosophie phénoménologique et à la montrer à l’œuvre. Il s’agit pour cela de définir le changement phénoménologique d’attitude comme « dé-limitation » de la vie de la conscience et la méthode phénoménologique comme « enrichissement mobile de sens », pour apercevoir que la dé-limitation, à travers l’enrichissement de sens, conduit à l’institution d’un nouveau mode de recherche. Mais de quelles limitations le changement d’attitude libère-t-il ? Qu’apporte l’enrichissement de sens qui soit proprement nouveau ? Dans quelle mesure cette « nouveauté » serait-elle instituée dans le cadre de la phénoménologie ?
This book examines phenomenology as working philosophy (Arbeitsphilosophie), that is, as an open research project. The main aim of the study consists in determining the mode of performance (Vollzugsweise) of the phenomenological work in progress. To achieve this goal we provide an analysis of the doctrine of attitude (Part I.), the doctrine of method (Part II.), and then the “flexible” architectonics (Part III.) of phenomenology. These elaborations enable us to thematize the de-limitation of consciousness (Entschränkung), the enrichment of sense (Sinnbereicherung) and the institution of the new as the characteristic features of the phenomenological method of operating. This research project requires a constant oscillation between an open systematization of Edmund Husserl’s philosophy and particular phenomenological analyses.
This article explores a performative understanding of social science method. First, it draws on STS to consider the plausibility of the claim that research methods generate not only representations of reality, but also the realities those representations depict. Second, it undertakes an archaeology of a major survey — a Eurobarometer investigation of European citizens’ attitudes to farm animal welfare — in order to explore the character of its performativity. Finally, it considers some of the implications of the performativity of research tools for the future of methods in social science.
This volume consists of chapters written by eminent scientists and engineers from the international community and presents significant advances in several theories, and applications of an interdisciplinary research. These contributions focus on both old and recent developments of Global Optimization Theory, Convex Analysis, Calculus of Variations, and Discrete Mathematics and Geometry, as well as several applications to a large variety of concrete problems, including applications of computers to the study of smoothness and analyticity of functions, applications to epidemiological diffusion, networks, mathematical models of elastic and piezoelectric fields, optimal algorithms, stability of neutral type vector functional differential equations, sampling and rational interpolation for non-band-limited signals, recurrent neural network for convex optimization problems, and experimental design.
The book also contains some review works, which could prove particularly useful for a broader audience of readers in Mathematical and Engineering subjects and especially to graduate students who search for the latest information.
The modern state as an object of research creates the necessity for improvement of methods of political researches. The author proposes the method of political-law analysis. The law component of the method represents analysis of correspondence of actions of the research object to the norms of the Constitution, international human rights and freedoms acts and current legislation. The political component is based on exposure of political aims and the results of such activities. The method of comparative-institutional analysis is proposed in the article. Its essence is in comparison of different characteristics of the state to expose existing correlations and trends of influence. Initial data is the results of government researches by international and non-governmental organizations.
Based on the above-described method of the electronic structures synthesis, an automated subsystem ASONIKA-V has been developed. This subsystem is designed to analyze the mechanical characteristics and synthesis of cabinets structures, racks and blocks electronics, mounted on vibration isolators, under the influence of harmonic vibration, random vibration, shock loads, linear acceleration, under the influence of acoustic noise, as well as complex mechanical influences and decision-making on the basis of the mechanical characteristics in order to ensure structures stability of electronic to mechanical stress.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.