Виды ценовой конкуренции на рынке медицинских услуг
The article distinguishes the reasons for insufficient development of competition in the sphere of medicine; identifies the major types of such competition, and emphasizes that it can increase the quality of medical support for consumers.
What is governmental effectiveness on the regional level? How can the study of regional effectiveness help us understand the performance of the political, social and economic systems of the state as a whole? These questions are very important from both the theoretical and applied perspectives, and the Russian Federation, with its huge and diverse territory, provides extremely rich material to answer them. Serious institutional reforms in the public sector have been implemented in recent years, and the results vary substantially from one region to another. So, in Russia, we can study how general attempts to make government more effective - guided by federal policies - produce particular regional effects, and, conversely, how regions implement federal policy differently. Both views tell us something important about overall governmental quality.
Governmental effectiveness, though in a broad sense one of the oldest issues in political science and philosophy, is currently enjoying a renaissance. The quantity of recent publications and even a special academic structure - The Quality of Government Institute in Sweden – illustrate the current interest. However, researching governmental effectiveness poses serious difficulties, on both the conceptual and instrumental levels. Despite (perhaps even because of) the variety of available theoretical frameworks, the essential core notions of governmental effectiveness and good governance remain murky. Furthermore, scholars disagree about what effectiveness and efficiency mean in a general sense. These issues obviously make it difficult to construct adequate measurement instruments.
The paper seeks to achieve three goals: 1) to review existing approaches and highlight their weak points; 2) to propose a theoretical framework for analyzing governmental effectiveness using appropriate estimation tools; and 3) to present empirical results based on data on public health care from Russia’s regions. Three patterns that ought to correlate - regional efficiency, how reform has been implemented and public opinion – are, instead, inconsistent with each other. Russia’s health-care sector today faces considerable problems with basic, systemic effectiveness.
Abstract. The well-being of any economy depends on maturity and stability of institutions which it is based on. The banking and insurance systems are the key institutions of financial sector, and any structural or quantitative changes in these institutions have an ambivalent effect on the sector and the Russian economy as a whole. The emergence of explicit control of banks over the insurance sector in recent years has become one of the most discussed topics in financial and scientific communities, but participants in the discourse have not as yet come to a consensus about the impact of such interaction on other sectors of the economy. Furthermore, it was noted that the number of insurance companies is rapidly falling. The objective of this study is to prove two working hypotheses that banks: 1) exert pressure on the insurance market 2) lead it to oligopolization with a high concentration of individual companies. Using the correlation, a comparative and quantitative analysis of the coefficients responsible for the type of structure of the insurance market, we managed to prove that the banking sector almost completely controls the insurance market, the process of establishing an oligopoly is taking place in the insurance market as a result of pressure from banks.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.