Профилактика сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний на предприятии: систематический обзор
Introduction. Cardiovascular diseases have a tremendous impact on the health of the working-age population, causing high economic costs to the country as a whole and to various individual companies. Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in the workplace can have a considerable effect on reducing human and labour losses. To determine effective measures in lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases, it is necessary to systematise the results of relevant studies.
Aim. To summarise and to systematise the results of academic studies relating to the impact of prevention activities organised in the workplace on the markers of there being a risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Materials and methods. We conducted a systematic review of academic studies uploaded to PubMed и Web of Science; we studied articles written in English and Russian. We selected 41 studies containing empirical assessments of the effectiveness of both short-term and long-term prevention programmes in the workplace. We grouped the results on the basis on the types of interventions.
Results. There are significant differences in the types of interventions and in efficiency indicators relating to each type. Academic programmes have controversial evidence as to the risks of cardiovascular diseases identified through blood testing; these programmes can lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases connected with being overweight. Complex programmes aimed at forming a healthy lifestyle show similar results; however, programmes that paid particular attention to physical activity showed a positive effect on lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Programmes aimed at increasing the amount of physical activity demonstrate a considerable effect on indicators connected with employees’ weight, enabling improvements in blood pressure, high density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol; however, these results have only a short-term effect. Ergonomics-related interventions and shift rotation did not demonstrate strong evidence of being able to lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Conclusion. Understanding the effectiveness of prevention programs will help employers and governments to identify the necessary actions for CVDs harm reduction and to find the right health and social protection decisions. Further research is needed on the effectiveness of CVD prevention programs for different occupational groups of workers, or specific CVD risk types.