ВОСПРИНИМАЕМАЯ БЕЗОПАСНОСТЬ И СОЦИАЛЬНЫЕ ИДЕНТИЧНОСТИ В КОНТЕКСТЕ АДАПТАЦИИ МИГРАНТОВ ИЗ СРЕДНЕЙ АЗИИ В РОССИИ
The problem of adaptation of migrants from Central Asia to Russia is urgent, since these migrants are the largest group. The purpose of this study is to identify the roles of perceived security and social identity in the adaptation of migrants from Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Based on the integrative theory of threats, the theory of acculturation, as well as taking into account the socio-cultural context of the countries of origin, the author considers the peculiarities of the relationship between perceived security, ethnic, religious, Russian identities with the psychological and socio-cultural adaptation of migrants from Tajikistan and Uzbekistan to Russia. Using structural equation modeling, we found that perceived security predicted the strength of ethnic, religious, and Russian identities among migrants from Tajikistan. Religious identity was positively related to life satisfaction and negatively - to sociocultural adaptation of migrants from Tajikistan to Russia. Russian identity was negatively associated with the self-esteem of migrants. Perceived security was negatively related to self-esteem through Russian identity, with sociocultural adaptation through religious identity. Additionally, perceived security was positively associated with life satisfaction through religious identity. Among migrants from Uzbekistan, perceived security was positively related only to religious and Russian identities. Russian identity was positively associated with life satisfaction, while Russian national identity was negatively associated with it. As in the Tajik sample, the perceived security did not have the significant direct effect on the psychological and sociocultural adaptation of migrants. However, mediation analysis showed that Russian identity mediated the relationship between perceived security and the satisfaction of migrants with their lives. In general, we can say that the authors identified different mechanisms that ensure the relationship between perceived security and adaptation among migrants from Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The results obtained allow a deeper understanding of the process of adaptation of migrants from Central Asia to Russia and will be useful to specialists working in the field of migration policy and practice.