Российские медиа: целевые установки, стратегии и технологии воздействия на аудиторию. Статья вторая: эмпирическое исследование
The article presents the methods and results of the study of the specific features of the interaction of different social institutions with different audiences in different circumstances. The main methods used for the study were content analysis and intent analysis. The study was organized as follows. Selected texts with signs of institutional origin. Masters from the Higher School of Economics were involved as experts. The study involved 69 experts, divided into groups of 3-4 people. Each group worked with texts related to a particular social institution, using specially developed techniques.
In general, throughout the entire array, the goal of evoking an emotional reaction was in first place. Then there are the goals: proving the truth of the thesis expressed by the author; evaluation of the actions or behavior of the "hero" of the publication. Target attitudes are much less common: command (order) and compulsion.
The main social technologies of influence used by institutional communicators: formation of a picture of the world; the formation of political and ideological ideas. In other words, most social institutions are engaged in the conscious management of the development process of a person or individual aspects of personality, qualities and character traits and bringing them to the intended form (level, image, idea).
The frequency of using such harsh and unattractive methods of influence as xenophobia and discrimination is much lower, although they are also used by institutions of culture, upbringing and education, institutions of the social sphere and some others.
Communication technologies of influence were divided into "symmetric" - these are technologies, the use of which presupposes the subject-subject relationship of the communicator and the addressee; and "asymmetrical" - technologies based on subject-object relations. It should be noted that only slightly more than a third of social institutions actively use “symmetric” technologies. At the same time, the dialogical possibilities of communication, that is, those that are most relevant to digital civilization, are used occasionally. As for the "asymmetric" technologies of influence, here the "three leaders" included "management of the communicative situation"; "Psychological manipulation" and "technologies of social induction." At the same time, communication institutions are breaking an anti-record for the use of "asymmetrical" technologies - there are almost three quarters of the demonstrated technological arsenal.
The study showed that both in the repertoire of the targets of influence and in the social and communication technologies used, there are priorities that depend on the type of social institution.