Динамика социолингвистической ситуации хакасско-русского языкового взаимодействия на территории Южной Сибири
The article analyses the unbalanced linguistic situation reflected in the linguistic consciousness of the Khakas-Russian bilinguals living in both places of their original compact residence and in places of regional migration (Tomsk Region). The research aims at assessing the influence of different sociocultural factors on the processes of linguistic dynamics of the Khakas-Russian language interaction in the territory under study. The analysis of the linguistic situation allowed distinguishing three age groups of bilinguals: the first group includes native speakers up to 35 years old, the second group includes people from 35 to 65 years old, and the third group consists in those over 65 years old. The article provides desciptive statistics on the level of proficiency in the Russian and Khakas languages, the distribution of languages in different spheres of communication, the degree and method of their dominance and functioning at different periods of the respondents’ lives and at the present moment. The analysis of the questionnaires and interviews has shown different levels and patterns of language proficiency in selected groups. A sharp decline in the level of the Khakas language proficiency is observed in the older generation to the middle age and young people. The process of communication in specific areas is served by different correlated languages in communicative bilingual practices depending on the age. The factors that increase the influence of the Russian language and the repression of the mother tongue in the everyday and aesthetic communication are the language policy of the Russian Federation that defines the role of the Russian language as a state language used in all spheres of institutional communication, and the discrease in the functional significance of the native language and language practice among the representatives of the first age group. The most important factors supporting the current activity of the Khakas language in all bilingual age groups are the density of residence in the places of the original population and the revival of national identity, supported institutionally in the studied areas. Among less important factors are traditional family education and the trend towards mono-ethnic marriage.