Предпосылки и основания становления персоналистической антропологии современного экзистенциального анализа: от идеи к практике
Modern existential analysis, as a school of psychological science and practice, is developing through dialogue with philosophy, academic psychology, theoretical models and practical methods of various approaches in psychotherapy. In the last decade this dialogue has led to a significant development of ideas about the spiritual dimension of a human being, which form the basis of existential-analytical anthropology – the differentiation of phenomenal manifestations of the spiritual dimension into the Self and the Person and the corresponding conceptualization.
This article systematizes the ideas developed in the recent works of A. Längle regarding the spiritual Self as the center of self-consciousness, decision-making and volitional activity of an individual, and the spiritual Person as the center of orientation in the field of the essence of being.
We trace the continuity of the development of the idea of the Person, starting from the philosophical anthropology of M. Scheler through V. Frankl’s psychology of the search for meaning to the modern existential analysis of A. Längle. The concepts of "spiritual Self" and "spiritual Person" are considered as phenomena of human existence as well as theoretical constructs.
The theoretical and methodological significance of the distinction between the Self and the Person for understanding the problem of authenticity and the genesis of individual differences, overcoming the absolutization of psychonoetic antagonism of V. Frankl's theory, revealing the importance of inner dialogue in the dynamics of relation to oneself and self-realization is analyzed in detail. We substantiated the understanding of human development as the establishment of his spiritual Self and the ability to provide the Person with a space of opportunities in human existence, as well as the understanding of mental health and mental disorders and the corresponding approach to development of a strategy and methods of psychotherapy. The philosophical-methodological and cultural-historical prospects of the development of the idea of the Person in modern existential analysis are shown.