Mandelstam’s Poetry and Artistic–Philosophical Intuitions of Russian Culture
This article analyzes the artistic experience of Osip E. Mandelstam (1891–1938) in the context of the aesthetic and ideological transformations of Russian and European culture during the first half of the twentieth century and of the philosophical inquiries of that period. Overcoming the programmatic multitudes of modernist aesthetics, Mandelstam draws his own artistic ideas and images from those aesthetics while also opposing postclassical culture in the form of the artistic avant-garde. Relying on his own poetic and intellectual intuition, which he explicated and formalized theoretically in his essays and works of criticism, he asserts an authorly, reflective style of modern poetry that anticipated the post-nonclassical artistic culture characteristic of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.
The cycle "Imitations of the Ancients" (1821) is described in the article as an episode from Batyushkov's reception-derived practices. Sources for three of the six miniatures in "Imitations" are found (fragments of Saadi's "Gulistan"as adapted by J.-H. Herder), as well as the syntactic-compositional model for another miniature ("Когда в страдании девица отойдет..."/"When the maiden, suffering, passes away..."). Analysis of how this model functions provides the basis for a hypothesis for precising the manner in which topoi in this text are linked to its plot.
The article contains the contrastive analysis of the ways homeland/motherland is presented in Russian and English poetry. Titles of the poems devoted to their native country become material for this analysis.
The book describes the problem of transition of different structures of literature in the austrian literature.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.