Проблема веры в психологии: историко-теоретический обзор
The conducted historical and theoretical review acquaints a reader with a state of the problem of faith in psychology. Basing on an analysis of foreign and domestic researches of faith, the author elicits their theoretical background. The gnoseological “skew” in understanding of faith as a psychological phenomenon is stated as well as methodological errors in researches of faith are fixed: elementarism, abstractness etc. Different definitions of faith in psychology and philosophy are analyzed critically, the limits and philosophical foundations of definitions are disclosed. The structure of faith, proposed by scholars, is considered, the properties of faith are analyzed. The differences of concepts such as “faith”, “confidence”, “trust”, “belief” are noted. The author of article considers that the exploration of faith as a person’s relation is the most perspective approach. The concept “relation” allows to generalize all phenomenal manifestations of faith in a uniform construct. Faith is connected with a making of meaning process and is the precondition of any human activity (B.S. Bratus). Faith gives a complete image of the future which motivates a person, convincing that plans he or she has are realistic and achievable. The conducted theoretical analysis showed that the problem of faith in psychology is not identified, and various interpretations of this phenomenon are difficult to conceptualize. Psychological investigations of faith have no reflexive character. However, identification of the problem is possible if to be based upon general scientific and general psychological methodologies. As the author of article supposes, contemporary psychology needs to answer a question: whether is the problem of faith a kind of “pseudo-problem” in psychology, and a concept of faith — superfluous?