Quantum phase transition of a two-dimensional quadrupolar system
Ensembles with long-range interactions between particles are promising for revealing strong quantum collective effects and many-body phenomena. Here we study the ground-state phase diagram of a two-dimensional Bose system with quadrupolar interactions using a diffusionMonte Carlo technique. We predict a quantum phase transition from a gas to a solid phase. The Lindemann ratio and the condensate fraction at the transition point are γ = 0.269(4) and n0/n = 0.031(4), correspondingly. We observe the strong rotonization of the collective excitation branch in the vicinity of the phase transition point. Our results can be probed using state-of-the-art experimental systems of various nature, such as quasi-two-dimensional systems of quadrupolar excitons in transition metal dichalcogenide trilayers, quadrupolar molecules, and excitons or Rydberg atoms with quadrupole moments induced by strong magnetic fields.