Российские медиа: целевые установки, стратегии и технологии воздействия на аудиторию. Статья первая: система понятий и методология исследования.
The article is devoted to the study of the specific features of the interaction of different social institutions with different audiences in different circumstances. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the categories complex and methodological prerequisites for such interaction. The object of the study was the communication of social institutions of different types: economic institutions, political and legal institutions, defense and public order institutions, institutions for social sphere, cultural, upbringing and education institutions, communication institutions.
The article shows that the texts exchanged by the participants of any social communication are a complex of actions. These actions, in turn, are elements of the activity of a certain social actor. And this activity is carried out in accordance with a certain strategy. The strategy includes targets for the achievement of which communicative actions are carried out; means (resources) without the use of which these actions cannot be performed, and techniques (technologies) for performing the necessary actions.
The functional-target analysis of institutional communication made it possible to single out a set of goals to achieve which the efforts of the institutional communicator are directed. The study of resources made it possible to describe seven groups of tools that are used to achieve the goals. Analysis of the categories "technique", "method", "technology" made it possible to clarify the differences between them. It was concluded that the criterion for distinguishing these categories is the degree of impersonality of the schemes of activity used.
The categorie of "technique" refers to an individualized algorithm of actions, which is based on the intuition and personal experience of a particular individual. This algorithm is transmitted from master to disciple in the interpersonal communication.
The categorie "method" is used to denote a scientifically verified approach to transforming the object of activity. Mastering this approach presupposes the study of a special theory.
The categorie "technology" denotes an algorithm of activity that has passed multiple practical and scientific tests, brought to perfection and set out in publicly available diagrams. This algorithm can be used by any actor to solve similar problems and achieve the desired results. It is proposed to highlight the following types of technologies: production, economic, political, social, cultural, communication. The article analyzes social and communication technologies.