Визуальность и нарративность в античной традиции об Ахиллесе: уникальный проект аристократического образования
The article analyzes the visual and narrative components in the ancient tradition of teaching and upbringing of Achilles. The uniqueness of Achilles 'educational path is emphasized by many ancient authors, and especially by Homer, who turns the theme of Achilles' growing up into one of the main themes of the Iliad. The Iliad presents different levels of the aristocratic education of youth on the example of Achilles — a hero with a difficult character, whose mentors were the immortal centaur Chiron and the mortal man Phoenix. According to Homer, Achilles's education was at home, and only for a short time he was raised by Chiron (his maternal great-grandfather). Other ancient authors, on the other hand, present the educational path of Achilles as the traditional path of an aristocrat boy who was brought up far from home under the supervision of a male relative on the maternal side. The textual tradition of Achilles' discipleship in the logic of Homer or outside it was supplemented by vase painting, where in VI–V ВС stories about Achilles, his mentors and Thetis (mother of Achilles), who played a significant role in his formation were widespread. The combination of the narrative and visual components gives an idea of the "curriculum" of the future warrior-aristocrat, as well as the peculiarities and paradoxes of aristocratic education, the "product" of which was Achilles. In ancient pedagogical culture, Achilles was the one who wins from a young age, using natural superiority, and whose educational path can be described as teaching to be a winner.